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GRAMMAR: Participle II. The Present Perfect Tense

The Functions of the Verb to have


1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

capital, property, business, marketplace, privately, ownership, moderate, product, profit, marked, wealth, fertile, soil, non-ferrous, powerful;

b) stress the second syllable:

produce, production, predominance, development, extremely, economist, decision, combine, despite, describe, provide, advance.

2. Name the word-building elements (suffixes, prefixes) and

the part of speech of each word:

to unite — unity — united — union; to develop — development — developed — developmental; to profit — profit — profitable — unprofitable — profitably — profiteer — profitability; industry — industrial — industrialist — to industrialize — industrialization — industrially — industrious; economy — economic — economics — economical — economically — to economize — economist.
Text A

The United States of America is one of the largest countries in the world. It has a developed free enterprise economy 1. It means that people are able to own 2 capital and property and to run their own businesses 3 for making profit 4. Most economic decisions in the country are made in the marketplace. Nearly 90 per cent of the goods and services 5 produced in the country each year come from privately owned companies and firms.

Despite 6 the fact that the United States has a free enterprise system, government's role in the economy is so important that economists describe it as a mixed economy 7. It is an economic system that combines elements of public ownership 8 of the means of production 9 with private ownership 10, and elements of free enterprise with government participation and control.

The USA is a country with a highly developed economy. With only 5 per cent of the world's population and about 6 per cent of its land area the USA produces 25 per cent of the world's industrial products, agricultural goods, and services. It leads the capitalist world in industrial and agricultural production, leaving the other capitalist countries far behind.

The United States owes 11 its high level of economic development to its great wealth of minerals and fertile farm soil 12, together with a moderate climate 13. The territory is extremely rich in such minerals as coal, oil, natural gas, iron ore 14 and non-ferrous metals 15. They provide a solid base for modern industry.

The country has very powerful industries, advanced technologies, and science. The structural composition of the US industry shows a marked predominance 16 of heavy industry, namely mining, chemical, metallurgy, machine-building, nuclear power and aeromissile industries. Electronic and electric engineering, transport, communication and machine-tool industries can be found almost in all large cities of the USA.
1. free enterprise economy — економiка, що ґрунтується на вiльному пiдприємництвi

2. to own — мати, володiти

3. to run a business — вести діло, управляти пiдприємством

4. ... for making profit — для отримання прибутку

5. goods and services — товари та послуги

6. despite — незважаючи на

7. mixed economy — змiшана економiка

8. public ownership — державна власнiсть

9. means of production — засоби виробництва

  1. private ownership — приватна власнiсть

  2. to owe smth to — бути зобов'язаним чимось комусь; завдячувати

  3. fertile soil — родючий ґрунт

  4. moderate climate — помiрний клiмат

  5. iron ore — залiзна руда

  6. non-ferrous metals — кольоровi метали

  7. marked predominance — значна перевага


I. Find equivalents:

1. free enterprise economy

2. to run a business

3. economic system

4. private ownership

5. means of production

6. public ownership

7. mixed economy

8. agricultural production

9. economic development

10. non-ferrous metals

11. advanced technology

  1. moderate climate

13. to make decisions

14. goods and services

а. економiчний розвиток

б. кольоровi метали

в. змiшана економiка

г. засоби виробництва

д. товари та послуги

е. помiрний клiмат

є. передова технологiя

ж. приймати рiшення

з. економiчна система

і. сiльськогосподарське виробництво

і. вести діло

ї. державна власнiсть

й. приватна власнiсть

к. економiка, що ґрунтується на вiльному пiдприємництвi

II. Substitute the words in bold type by their synonyms:

1. In spite of the fact that the United States has a free enterprise system, government's role in the economy is very significant. 2. The USA is one of the most highly developed capitalist countries. 3. The United States owes its high level of economic development to its great riches of minerals and fertile farm soil, together with a temperate climate. 4. Minerals provide a strong base for present-day industry. 5. Mixed economy combines element of public property of the means of production with private property.

  1. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Mixed economy is an economic system that combines elements ... public ownership ... the means ... production ... private ownership, and elements ... free enterprise ... government participation and control. 2. The USA is a country ... a highly developed economy. 3. It leads the capitalist world ... industrial and agricultural production, leaving the other capitalist countries ... behind. 4. Nearly 90 per cent ... the goods and services produced ... the country each year come ... privately owned companies and firms.
5. The territory ... the country is extremely rich ... minerals.

IV. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms

from the list:

сapital; free enterprise economy; property; mixed economy; means of production; minerals; businesses; private ownership; industrial and agricultural production; goods and services.

1. The United States of America has a developed _______ . 2. People are able to own ________ and ________ and to run their own _______ for making profit. 3. Nearly 90 per cent of ___________ produced in the country each year come from privately owned firms. 4. Economists describe the American system as a _________ . 5. It combines elements of public ownership of the ________ with _________ . 6. The USA leads the capitalist world in _________ , leaving the other capitalist countries far behind. 7.The territory of the USA is extremely rich in ___________ .

V. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B

1. mixed economy

a. The money needed to start and continue operating a business commerce and industry.

2. capitalism

b. The application of science to commerce and industry.

3. marketplace

c. The production, distribution and sale of good and services for a profit.

4. private property

d. Any place in which goods are bought and sold.

5. capital

e. Economic system that combines elements

of free-market and command economies.

6. ownership

f. Free enterprise system.

7. technology

g. Right over property, including right of possession, exclusive enjoyment, destruction etc.

8. business

h. Goods owned and controlled by individuals.

  1. Define which of the following items best completes

the statement:

1. In a free enterprise system

a. individuals may enter any lawful business.

b. each citizen has the right to vote in elections.

c. goods are so plentiful that they are free.

d. workers do not charge for their labour.

2. An economy is «mixed » when

a. goods and services are produced by both publicly and privately.

b. government owns and controls all businesses.

c. economic decisions are made by tradition.

d. there is a «mixture» of rich and poor people.

3. Today in the American economy

a. government plays only a tiny part.

b. economic decisions are made in the marketplace.

c. government plays a significant role.

d. free enterprise no longer exists.

4. Which of the following is a reason for government participation in
the economy

a. to reduce competition in the marketplace.

b. to provide goods and services more cheaply than private enterprise.

c. to regulate harmful externalities.

d. to guarantee that all business firms earn a profit.

  1. Complete the following sentences:

1. The United States of America is ... . 2. Free enterprise economy means ... . 3. Despite the fact that the United States has a free enterprise system ... . 4. Mixed economy is ... . 5. The United States owes its high level of economic development ... . 6. The territory of the USA is extremely rich in such minerals as ... . 7. The structural composition of the US industry shows ... . 8. Electronic and electric engineering, transport, communication and machine-tool industries can be found ... .

  1. Answer the following questions:

1. Is the United States of America one of the largest countries in the world? 2. What type of economic system does the USA have? What does it mean? 3. Where are most economic decisions made in the country? 4. What is the role of the government in the US economy? 5. What is a mixed economy? 6. What place does the USA hold in the capitalist world? 7. What does the country owe its high level of economic development to? 8. What minerals is the territory rich in? What do they provide? 9. Does the country have powerful industries, advanced technologies, and science? 10. What does the structural composition of the US industry show? 11. What industries can be found in large cities?

IX . Translate into English:

1. Cполученi Штати Америки — одна з найбiльших країн свiту.
2. Вона має розвинуту економiку, яка ґрунтується на вiльному пiдприємництвi. 3. Це означає, що люди можуть володiти капiталом i власнiстю та провадити власне діло для отримання прибутку. 4. Близько 90% послуг та товарiв, якi виробляються в країнi, надходять вiд приватних компанiй та фiрм. 5. Роль уряду в економiцi країни є настiльки важливою, що економiсти вважають її змiшаною економiкою. 6. Економiчна система поєднує елементи приватної та державної власностi на засоби виробництва. 7. США — високорозвинута капiталiстична країна. 8. Територiя США надзвичайно багата на такі корисні копалини, як вугiлля, нафта, природний газ, залiзна руда та руди кольорових металiв. 9. Це забезпечує мiцну базу для сучасної промисловостi країни. 10. У структурному складi промисловостi країни переважaє важка промисловiсть.

X. Give the characteristic of the US economy using

the following words and word-combinations:

free enterprise economy; to own capital and property; to run a business; for making profit; to make decisions; marketplace; goods and services; privately owned companies and firms; economic system; public ownership of the means of production; government's role; mixed economy; private ownership; industrial and agricultural production; high level of economic development; great wealth of minerals; highly developed economy; solid base for modern industry; heavy industry; advanced technology; mining, chemical, machine-building, nuclear power, aeromissile industries; machine-tool industry; metallurgy.


1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

operate, concentrate, dominant, summerize, rainfall, principal, average, output, grapefruit, sunflower, oats, barley, vegetable, hay, strawberry, quantity, arable, husbandry, highland, pasture, breeding, dairying;

b) stress the second syllable:

increase, exceed, domestic, tobacco, substantially, dramatically;

c) stress the third syllable:

corporation, irrigation, productivity, tangerine, scientifically.

Text B

Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the US economy. It accounts for about 3 per cent of the GNP 1. Farms are owned by the people who operate them and by business corporations. Farming 2 is largely mechanized and scientifically controlled.

The dominant trend in American agriculture can be summerized in two words — increased productivity 3. Gross agricultural output 4 has increased dramatically: 50 years ago a farmer fed 10 people; at present the average farmer feeds 75.

American agriculture produces more food products than any other capitalist country. Production of most crops substantially exceeds domestic needs 5, making the United States a leading exporter of food. About a fifth of the country's territory is arable 6. The rainfall is not high, and irrigation is widely used there. The principal crops grown in the country are: corn, wheat, soy-beans 7, sugar-cane 8 and sugar beets, sunflower, tobacco, hay, rice, cotton, oats, and barley.

The United States harvests a lot of vegetables such as tomatoes, potatoes and onions. Florida and California are famous for their fruit production. They grow oranges, lemons, tangerines and grapefruit. Strawberries, pears and apples are also produced in large quantities.

Animal husbandry is also developed in the country. Pastures 9 occupy more than one-forth of the United States. The highlands in the West of the country are famous for their dairy and beef cattle breeding, pig raising, and sheep farming. Dairying is well developed, and milk, cheese, and butter production exceed domestic needs. Wool production 10, leather and textile industries 11 are also developed there. Poultry-farming and vegetable growing are concentrated in the countryside 12 near all the big cities.


1. GNP — ВНП (валовий нацiональний продукт)

2. farming — сiльське господарство

3. increased productivity — зростання прoдуктивностi

4. gross agricultural output — обсяг валової продукцiї сiльського господарства

5. domestic needs — внутрiшнi потреби

6. arable land — орна земля

7. soy-beans — соя, соєвi боби

8. sugar-cane — цукрова тростина

9. pasture — пасовище

10. wool production — виробництво вовни

11. leather industry — шкiряна промисловiсть

12. countryside — сiльська мiсцевiсть
I. Give the corresponding nouns to the following verbs:

to develop, to generate, to mechanize, to communicate, to predominate, to employ, to irrigate, to grow, to occupy, to describe, to concentrate, to mean, to produce, to combine, to participate, to govern, to provide.

II. Form adverbs from to the following adjectives:

private, near, high, industrial, extreme, economic, substantial, scientific, especial, slow, large, primary, main, wide, easy, immense, dramatic.

III. Give the English equivalents for:

валовий нацiональний продукт; сiльське господарство; домiнуюча тенденцiя; зростання продуктивностi; обсяг валової продукцiї сiльського господарства; продукти харчування; внутрiшнi потреби; кiлькiсть опадiв; зрошення; цукрова тростина; у великiй кiлькостi; розведення молочної та м'ясної худоби; cвинарство; вiвчарство; птахiвництво; вирощування овочiв; провiдний експортер; орна земля; виробництво вовни; сiльська мiсцевiсть; шкiряна промисловiсть.

  1. Match the synonyms:

farming, trend, sector, to increase, cattle-raising, to manage, tendency, to grow, agriculture, cattle-breeding, about, to operate, nearly, manufacturing, branch, to possess, ownership, production.

  1. Translate into Ukrainian:

state power, oak forest, iron ore, animal products, fruit production, crop production increase, food industry, government participation and control, land use, spring wheat, winter wheat, market economy, business corporations, food products, free enterprise economy, capitalist country.

VI. Ask someone

if agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the US economy; it accounts about 3 per cent of the GNP; farming is largely mechanized and scientifically controlled; gross agricultural output has increased dramatically; animal husbandry is also developed in the country;

what the principal crops grown in the country are; vegetables the United States harvests; Florida and California are famous for; they grow; territory pastures occupy; the highlands are famous for; industries are developed there;

how the dominant trend in American agriculture can be summerized;

why irrigation is widely used in the country;

where poultry-farming and vegetable growing are concentrated.

VII. Retell the text in English according to the plan:

1. Сiльське господарство — одна з найважливiших галузей економiки
Сполучених Штатiв Америки.

2. Провiдна роль ферм з високим рiвнем механiзацiї.

3. Основна тенденцiя в розвитку сiльського господарства країни.

4. Основнi зерновi культури, якi вирощуються в країнi.

5. Розвиток садiвництва та овочiвництва в країнi.

6. Роль тваринництва в сiльськогосподарському виробництвi.

Participle II

I. Form Participle II of the following verbs:

a) to hope, to stop, to produce, to listen, to open, to study, to concentrate, to determine, to start, to develop, to play;

b) to be, to have, to do, to get, to come, to meet, to know, to make, to cut, to go, to see, to buy, to begin, to choose, to say, to sell.

  1. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the place

of Participle II:

a) a broken cup; an unanswered letter; an opened window; a closed door; a written exercise; a developed country; a mixed economy; a discussed problem; produced goods; satisfied needs; privately owned firms; a translated text; widely used irrigation;

b) knowledge acquired by the students; the questions put to the teacher; the subjects studied by the first-year students; economic system based on private ownership of the factors of production; the specialists trained at our University; the house built in our street.

III. Translate into English:

a) механiзоване сiльське господарство; вiдомий економiст; загубленi ключi; проданi товари; прочитана книжка; забута мелодiя (tune);

б) товари, iмпортованi в нашу країну; лист, написаний моїм другом; товари, виготовленi на нашому заводi; робота, закiнчена вчасно; cтуденти, запрошенi на конференцiю; контракт, пiдписаний минулого року; cтаття, опублiкована в журналi; текст, перекладений українською мовою.

IV. State the functions of Participle II:

1. The main subject studied at our faculty is Political Economy.
2. Here is a letter addressed to you. 3. The machines made at our plant are exported to several countries. 4. If invited, he will come. 5. We have used the book taken from the library. 6. The contract signed last year was soon broken. 7. Have you answered all the questions asked? 8. She was always well dressed. 9. He has travelled a lot. 10. When asked, he always helped me. 11. My sweater is made in England. 12. You have made a mistake.
13. Used economically, these food supplies could last for a month.

The Present Perfect Tense

V. Make the sentences interrogative and negative:

1. The students have passed all their exams. 2. They have answered all the questions. 3. You have solved the problem. 4. Something has happened to your friend. 5. She has changed much. 6. Jane has made a lot of mistakes in her dictation. 7. We have met him before. 8. The rain has stopped. 9. Our teacher has just returned from London. 10. I have been there very often.

V I. Give short and full answers:

1. Have you ever been to London? 2. Have you ever travelled by air? 3. Have you had any dictations this month? 4. Has Kate revised the grammar rules yet? 5. Have they passed their exams? 6. Have they read much about Great Britain? 7. Have you kept your promise? 8. Has the post come?
9. Have you ever driven the car? 10. Has the lecture begun?

VII. Do as you are told and say what you have done:

Pattern A: Open your book, please. — I have opened my book.

1. Read the text, please. 2. Close your book, please. 3. Open the window, please. 4. Give me your book, please. 5. Answer my question, please. 6. Do this exercise, please. 7. Please turn on the light. 8. Please say it again. 9. Show me your composition, please. 10. Explain the rule, please.

Pattern B: Don't forget to post that letter. — I've already posted it.

1. Don't forget to phone your parents. 2. Don't forget to read this article. 3. Shall I pay the waiter? 4. Don't forget to see this film. 5. Don't forget to make a report.

VII I . Answer the questions:

1. How many classes have you had so far today? 2. How many classes have you missed since the beginning of the term? 3. How many questions have you asked so far? 4. How many tests have you taken since the beginning of the term? 5. How many cups of coffee have you had since you got up this morning? 6. How many cigarettes have you smoked today?
7. Where do you live? How long have you lived there? 8. How long have your parents been married?

IX. Ask and answer questions according to the Pattern:

Pattern: be to Europe — Have you ever been to Europe?

Yes, I have. I've been to Europe many times.

or: No, I haven't. I've never been to Europe.

1. be to Great Britain 2. eat Chinese food 3. ride a horse 4. be to Lviv 5. catch a butterfly 6. use a computer 7. smoke a cigar 8. fall asleep during class 9. lose anything valuable 10. drink Turkish coffee 11. win something in the lottery 12. sleep in a tent.

X. Put questions to the italicized words:

1. They have never been to any foreign countries. 2. We have already seen this new film. 3. My parents have lived in the same house for over thirty years. 4. They have sent us several telegrams lately. 5. He has met many people since he came here in June. 6. His friend has translated two English books into Ukrainian. 7. She has just left you a message. 8. He has missed the bus. 9. My mother has cooked a chocolate cake. 10. My sister has watered the flowers in the garden. 11. Someone has taken my bicycle.

XI. Complete the Disjunctive Questions:

1. He has translated the article, ... ? 2. They have moved into a new flat, ... ? 3. We haven't forgotten about them, ... ? 4. We have already spoken of our studies, ... ? 5. Janet has already finished her work, ... ? 6. The weather has been terrible lately, ... ? 7. Jane hasn't been out of town for two days, ... ? 8. You have never been there, ... ? 9. The students haven't left, ... ? 10. Your parents haven't arrived yet, ... ? 11. Bill has written a novel, ... ?

XII. Paraphrase the sentences, using the Present Perfect Tense

with for or since :

Pattern: It is two years since I saw Tom. I haven't seen Tom for two years.

I last read a newspaper on June 2.

I haven't read a newspaper since June 2.

1. It's three months since he wrote to me. 2. I last drank champagne at my brother's wedding. 3. He last shaved the day before yesterday. 4. I last ate raw fish when I was in Japan. 5. It's years since Mary last spoke French. 6. He last paid taxes in 1996. 7. I saw him last on his wedding day. 8. It's two years since I was last in Lviv.

XIII. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect:

1. He ( be) in hospital for ten days. 2. We ( know) each other for a long time. 3. She ( buy) this book in London. 4. You ( get) the wrong number.
5. He ( not smoke) for two weeks. He is trying to give it up. 6. The play just ( begin). You are a little late. 7. The manager ( sign) the letter. 8. I can't go out because I ( not finish) my work. 9. The students ( work) very well this term. 10. Is Father at home? No, he ( not come) yet. 11. I ( not see) him since January. I wonder where he is. 12. George ( read) the newspaper already. 13. The newspaper ( come)? — Yes, Ann is reading it. 14. My brother ( write) several plays. He just ( finish) his second tragedy. 15. I ( write) the letter but
I can't find a stamp. 16. We ( miss) the bus. Now we'll have to walk.

XIV. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. Mary has just gone out for a walk. 2. My elder brother has never had any trouble with mathematics. He likes it very much. 3. Have they come back from France yet? No, they haven't. They are coming tomorrow. 4. My mother has been sick this month. Now she is better. 5. Jane has had a lot of things to do lately. 6. I haven't seen Helen since I left school.

XV. Translate into English:

— Де Микола? Я ще не бачив його сьогоднi. Що з ним сталося? Чому вiн не прийшов до унiверситету? Вiн нiколи не пропускає занять. Боюся, що вiн захворiв. — Ви помиляєтеся. Микола тут. Вiн щойно прийшов. Вiн на лекцiї. Але ви не можете з ним говорити, оскiльки лекцiя вже почалася. Лекцiї завжди починаються вчасно. Я знаю цього професора дуже давно. Вiн викладає в унiверситетi з 1970 року. Вiн щойно повернувся iз Сполучених Штатiв. Вiн був там два роки. Вiн уже написав книжку про цю країну. На жаль, я ще її не читав.
The Functions of the Verb «to have»

XVI. Make the sentences interrogative and negative:

1. They have eggs for breakfast. 2. We have to work hard. 3. They have to get up at six every day. 4. The children have dinner at school. 5. She has to make a speech. 6. You have made a mistake in your dictation. 7. He has written to her. 8. The students have a very important test tomorrow. They have to study tonight. 9. We have to leave home early. 10. You had a good journey yesterday. 11. His wife has headaches quite often. 12. I have seen you before.

XVI I . State the function of the verb « to have »:

1. We have a TV set. 2. We have bought a TV set. 3. We have to buy a TV set. 4. The USA has a highly developed industry. 5. The students have an examination session at the end of each term. 6. The students have to take their examinations at the end of each term. 7. You don't have to write this exercise. 8. He has no books on this subject. 9. You haven't written your exercise. 10. He has to get up early in the morning. 11. I have entered our University this year. 12. He has got up early in the morning.

XVII I . Translate into English:

1. У вас є друзі? — Taк. У мене багато друзiв. 2. Нам не довелося чекати. Поїзд прийшов вчасно. 3. У вас є підручник з історії? — Так. Я взяв його в нашій бібліотеці. 4. У вас є вільний час зараз? — Ні. У мене ніколи немає вiльного часу. 5. Скiльки в неї братiв та сестер? - Не знаю. Вона ніколи не розповідала про себе. 6. Ваші діти вже поснiдали? — Так. — О котрiй годинi вони звичайно снiдають? — О восьмій. Вони завжди снідають о восьмій. 7. Скiльки у вас сьогоднi пар? — Чотири. У нас завжди чотири пари. 8. Мій друг не склав іспиту з математики. Йому доведеться складати його в серпнi.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Choose the proper place of the adverb:

1. He has not finished his work ( yet). 2. I have not received any letters from them ( lately). 3. Have you been to London ( ever)? 4. The delegation has arrived ( just). 5. She has spoken to him ( already). 6. Have you read this book ( yet)? 7. I have seen him at lectures ( never). 8. She has not seen this film, but she has heard a lot about it ( yet). 9. She has not read very much ( recently). 10. I have met her ( never).

II. Insert since or for:

1. I haven't seen you ... the beginning of the semester. I haven't seen you ... two months. 2. We have lived in Chicago ... last year. We have lived here ... almost six months. 3. He hasn't written to me ... April. He hasn't written to me ... about three weeks. 4. Peter has worked in the laboratory ... he graduated from the University. Peter has worked in the laboratory ... five years. 5. You haven't come here ... a fortnight. You haven't come here ... last Monday. 6. You have studied English ... childhood. You have studied English ... ten years.

  1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Tense,

and fill the spaces by repeating the auxiliary:

1. You (have) breakfast? — Yes, I ... .

2. The post (come)? — Yes, it ... .

3. You (see) my watch anywhere? — No, I'm afraid I ... .

4. Charles (pass) his exam? — Yes, he ... .

5. You (not make) a mistake? — No, I'm sure I ... .

6. Mary (water) the tomatoes? — Yes, I think she ... .

7. You (see) him lately? — No, I ... .

8. You (spend) all your money? — Yes, I ... .

9. The phone (stop) ringing? — No, it ... .

10. He just (go) out? — Yes, he ... .

IV. Translate into English:

1. Його немає вдома. Він щойно вийшов. 2. Цікаво, де вони зараз? Я не бачив їх відтоді, як переїхав до цього міста. 3. Ти вже написав доповідь на цю тему? — Так. 4. Ми з ним — друзі з самого дитинства,
і ми ніколи не сварились. 5. Останнім часом я не одержував листів від своїх батьків. 6. Ти вже вивчив текст? — Так. Я щойно вивчив текст
і зараз повторюю слова. 7. В аудиторії нікого немає. Усі пішли додому. 8. Ви хоч колись думали про це? — Ні.

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