Kunatenko Y. English

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Grammar Revision Tables

terminology of English grammar

Частини мови Parts of Speech

Іменник Noun

Неозначений артикль Indefinite Article

Означений артикль Definite Article

Злічувані іменники Count Nouns

Незлічувані іменники Noncount Nouns

Абстрактні іменники Abstract Nouns

Число Number

Oднина/множина Singular/plural

Загальний відмінок Common Сase

Присвійний відмінок Possessive Сase

Рід Gender

Прикметник Adjective

Ступені порівняння Degrees of Comparison

Вищий ступінь порівняння Comparative Degree

Найвищий ступінь порівняння Superlative Degree

Числівники Numerals

Кількісні числівники Cardinal Numerals

Порядкові числівники Ordinal Numerals

Займенники Pronouns

Особові займенники Personal Pronouns

Присвійні займенники Possessive Pronouns

Зворотні займенники Reflexive Pronouns

Взаємні займенники Reciprocal Pronouns

Вказівні займенники Demonstrative Pronouns

Питальні займенники Interrogative Pronouns

Сполучні займенники Conjunctive Pronouns

Неозначені займенники Indefinite Pronouns

Заперечні займенники Negative Pronoun

Кількісні займенники Quantitative Pronouns

Дієслово Verb

Правильні дієслова Regular Verbs

Неправильні дієслова Irregular Verbs

Особові форми дієслова Finite Forms of the Verbs

Неозначені часи Indefinite Tenses

Тривалі часи Continuous Tenses

Перфектні (доконані) часи Perfect Tenses

Перфектно-тривалі часи Perfect Continuous Tenses



NOUNS: SINGULAR AND PLURAL

Singular

Plural

Uses

day

bird

street

rose

day s

bird s

street s

rose s

The plural of a noun is usually made by adding -s to the singular

tomato

match

dish

class

box

tomato es

match es

dish es

class es

box es

Nouns ending in -o, -ch, -sh, -s, -ss or - x form their plural by adding -es.

(NOTE: words of foreign origin or abbreviated words ending in -o add -s only: dynamo - dynamo s; kilo - kilo s; photo - photo s; piano - piano s);

baby
city

bab ies
cit ies

Nouns ending in -y following a consonant form their plural by dropping the -y and adding -ies.

loaf

wife

wolf

calf

half

knife

shelf

life

sheaf

loa ves

wi ves

wol ves

cal ves

hal ves kni ves

shel ves

li ves

shea ves

Twelve nouns ending in -f or -fe drop the -f or -fe and add -ves : loaf, wife, wolf, calf, half, leaf, self, knife, life, sheaf, shelf, thief.

(Exceptions: beliefs, chiefs, roofs, cliffs, safes, cuffs, handkerchiefs).

The nouns hoof, scarf and wharf take either -s or -ves in the plural: wharfs or wharves, hoofs or hooves; scarfs or scarves.

man

woman

foot

goose

tooth

louse mouse

child

men

women

feet

geese

teeth

lice

mice

children

A few nouns form their plural by a vowel change.

sheep

deer

fish

species

swine

sheep

deer

fish

species

swine

Some nouns have the same form for singular and plural.

crisis

criterion datum

crises

criteria

data

Some nouns that English has borrowed from other languages have foreign plurals.

NOUNS: COMMON AND POSSESSIVE CASE

a) SingularNoun
the girl

my wife

my baby

Tom

Archimedes

Pythagoras

Thomas

Carlos

my brother-in

-law

Possessive Form
the girl's name

my wife's coat

my baby's toys

Tom's friend

Archimedes' Law

Pythagoras' Theorem

Thomas's/Thomas'

Carlos's/Carlos'

my brother-in-law's guitar



1. 's is used with singular nouns not ending in -s.


2. Classical names ending in -s usually add only the apostrophe.

3. Other names ending in -s take 's or the apostrophe alone.

4. With compounds, the last word takes the 's.

b) Plural Noun
the girls
the men

my children

Possessive Form
the girls' names
the men's work

my children's toys



1. A simple apostrophe (') is used with plural nouns ending in -s.

2. 's is used with plural nouns not ending in -s.


COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS

1. I bought a chair.

Tom bought three chairs.

2. We bought some furniture.

INCORRECT: We bought a furniture.

INCORRECT: We bought some furnitures.

Chair is a count noun; chairs are items that can be counted.

Furniture is a noncount noun.

In grammar, furniture cannot be counted.

Singular Plural

COUNT

NOUN

a chair

one chair

chairs

two chairs

some chairs

a lot of chairs

many chairs

A count noun:

a) may be preceded by a/an in the singular;

b) takes a final -s/-es in the plural.

NONCOUNT

NOUN

furniture

some furniture

a lot of

furniture

much furniture



A noncount noun:

a) is not immediately preceded by a/an;

b) has no plural form;

does not take a final -s/-es.

SOME COMMON NONCOUNT NOUNS

1. Whole groups made up of similar items: baggage, clothing, equipment, food, fruit, furniture, garbage, hardware, jewelry, junk, luggage, mail, machinery, make - up, money/cash/change, postage, scenery, traffic.

2. Fluids: water, coffee, tea, milk, oil, soup, gasoline, blood, etc.

3. Solids: ice, bread, butter, cheese, meat, gold , iron, silver, glass, paper, wood, cotton, wool, etc.

4. Gases: steam, air, oxygen, nitrogen, smoke, smog, pollution, etc.

5. Particles: rice, chalk, corn, dirt, dust, flour, grass, hair, pepper, salt, sand, sugar, wheat, etc.

6. Abstractions:

beauty, confidence, courage, education, enjoyment, fun, happiness, health, help, honesty, hospitality, importance, intelligence, justice, knowledge, laughter, luck, music, patience, peace, pride, progress, recreation, significance, sleep, truth, violence, wealth, etc.

advice, information, news, evidence, proof;

time, space, energy;

homework, work;

grammar, slang, vocabulary.

7. Languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, Spanish, etc.

8. Fields of study: economics, chemistry, engineering, history, literature, mathematics, psychology, etc.

9. Recreation: baseball, soccer, tennis, chess, bridge, poker, etc.

10. General activities: driving, studying, swimming, travelling, walking (and other gerunds) .

  1. Natural Phenomena: weather, dew, fog, hail, heat, humidity, gravity, rain, lightning, sleet, snow, thunder, wind, darkness, light, sunshine, electricity,

fire.


USING NOUNS AS MODIFIERS

1. The soup has vegetables in it.

It is vegetable soup.

2. The building has offices in it.

It is an office building.

When a noun is used as a modifier, it is in its singular form.

3. The test lasted two hours.

It was a two-hour test.

4. Her son is five years old.

She has a five-year-old son.

When a noun used as a modifier is combined with a number expression, the noun is singular and a hyphen (-) is used.

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE

Use of a/an

Examples

1. Before a singular countable noun, when it is mentioned for the first time and represents no particular person or thing:

I can see a book on the table.
They live in a flat.


He bought an ice-cream.

2. Before a singular countable noun which is used as an example of
a class of things:

A child needs love =
All children need/Any child needs love.


3. With a noun complement. This includes names of professions:

My friend is a manager.
She'll be a dancer.


4. With certain numbers.


Before half when half follows

a whole number.

But kg = half a kilo, though

a + half + noun is sometimes possible.

With , , etc a is usual:

a dozen, a hundred, a million (but one dozen, one hundred, one million is also possible).

kilos = one and a half kilos or

a kilo and a half;

a half-holiday, a half-portion,

a half-share;
a third, a quarter etc., but one is also possible.

5. In expressions of price, speed, ratio etc.:

5p a kilo, sixty kilometres an hour, four times a day; (Here a/an = per)

6. Before a singular countable noun after the word what in exclamatory sentences and after the words such, quite, rather :

Such a long queue! Such long queues!
What a pretty girl!
What pretty girls!
She is still quite a child.

It is rather a difficult problem.

7. With the nouns in the function of apposition.
But when the apposition refers to a well-known person the is used:

The report was made by Petrenko,
a student of our University.


Jack London, the great American novelist, was born in San Francisco.

8. In a number of set expressions: a lot of, a great many, a great deal of,
a good deal of, a great number of, a good many, a couple, a little, a few,
at a speed of, at a time when, at a time, in time, on a large (small) scale, all of a sudden, by bus (train), to be in a hurry, to be in a position, to be at a loss, it's a pity, for a short (long) time, as a result of, as a matter
of fact, to have a good time, to have a mind, in a loud (low) voice,
to have
a look,
to have a headache, to take a sit, to have a cold , to go for a walk .

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

Use of «the»

Examples

1. Before a noun which has become definite as a result of being mentioned:

I saw a new film on TV yesterday.
The film wasn't very interesting.


2. Before a noun made definite by
the addition of a phrase or clause:

the girl in blue; the boy that I met;
the place where I met him.


3. When the object or group of objects is unique:

the earth, the sea, the sky, the moon, the sun, the world.

4. Before a noun which by reason of locality can represent only one particular thing:

Ann is in the garden.
(the garden of this house).
Please open the window.

5. Before superlatives and first, second etc. used as adjectives or pronouns, and only :

the first week; the best day; the only way.

6. Before a noun that represents
a class of animals or things:
But man, used to represent
the human race, has no article.

The cow is a domestic animal.
The pine is an evergreen tree.
If oil supplies run out, man have
to fall back on the horse.


7. The + adjective represents a class of people:

the old = old people in general.
the rich = rich people in general.

8. Before certain proper names of oceans, rivers, seas, gulfs, groups of islands, chains of mountains, plural names of countries, deserts, and before certain other names:

The Atlantic, the Thames, the Alps,
the Black Sea, the Crimea, the City,
the United States of America,


the Sahara, the Persian Gulf.

9. Before the adjectives east/west etc. + noun in certain names:

the East/West End, the East/West Indies, the North/South Pole.

10.Before other proper names consisting of adjective + noun or noun + of + noun:

The National Gallery, the Tower of London.

11.Before names of newspapers, ships, orchesras, pop groups etc.

the Times, the Great Britain,
the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Beatles.


12. the + plural surname can be used to mean «the ... family»:

the Smiths = Mr and Mrs Smith
(and children).


13. the + a singular countable noun (type of machine, invention, musical instruments).

The bicycle is an excellent means of transport. When was the telephone invented? The piano is my favourite instrument.

NO ARTICLE

Uses

Examples

1. Before plural nouns:

My friends are students.

2. Before abstract nouns except when they are used in a particular sense:

Men fear death.
but: The death of the Prime Minister left his party without a leader.

3. After a noun in the possessive case, or a possessive adjective:

the boy's uncle = the uncle of the boy
It is my (blue) book = The (blue) book is mine.

4. Before names of meals:

The Scots have porridge for breakfast
but: The wedding breakfast was held in her father's house.

5. Before names of games:

He plays golf.

6. Before parts of the body and articles of clothing, as these normally prefer a possessive adjective:

Raise your right hand.
He took off his coat.


7. When home is used alone, ie is not preceded or followed by
a descriptive word or phrase:

He is at home. He went home.
I arrived home after dark.
I sent him home.


8. Before the nouns: bed, church, court, hospital, prison, school/college/university, when these places are visited or used for their primary purpose.

We can be/get back from school/college/university.

We can leave school, leave hospital, be released from prison.

But: When these places are visited or used for other reasons the is necessary:

We go: to bed to sleep; to church to pray; to court as litigants; to hospital as patients; to prison as prisoners;
to school/college/university to study;
similarly we can be: in bed, sleeping or resting; at church as worshippers;
in hospital as patients; at school as
students.
Sometimes he goes to the prison
to give lectures.


9. work = place of work.

He is at work.
He's on his way to work.


10. We go to sea as sailors. To be at sea = to be on a voyage
(as passengers or crew). But to go to or be at the sea = to go to or
be at the seaside. We can also live by/near the sea.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

The Nominative Case

The Objective Case

I — я

he — він

she — вона

it — воно (він, вона)

we — ми

you ви, ти

they — вони

me — мене, мені

him — його, йому

her — її, їй

it — його, йому, її, їй

us — нас, нам

you — вас, вам, тебе, тобі

them — їх, їм


POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Conjoint Form

Absolute Form

my мій, моя, моє, мої

his — його ( чоловічий рід)

her - її

its — його( середній рід), її

our наш, наша, наше, наші

your — ваш, ваша, ваше, ваші

твій, твоя, твоє, твої

their — їхній, їхня, їхнє, їхні

mine мій, моя, моє, мої

his — його ( чоловічий рід)

hers - її

-

ours наш, наша, наше, наші

yours — ваш, ваша, ваше, ваші

твій, твоя, твоє, твої

theirs — їхній, їхня, їхнє, їхні


REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

Persons

Singular

Plural

1 st pers.
2 nd pers.
3 rd pers.

myself
yourself
himself, herself, itself


сам(а) себе

ourselves
yourselves
themselves


самі себе

1. He looked at himself in the mirror.

A reflexive pronoun usually refers to the subject of a sentence. He and himself refer to the same person.

2. He himself answered the phone, not his secretary.

3. He answered the phone himself.

Sometimes reflexive pronouns are used for emphasis.

4. She lives by herself.

The expression by + a reflexive pronoun usually means «alone».

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

Sentences

-thing

-body, -one

-where

Affirmative


some

any


something
що-небудь
anything

усе, що завгодно

somebody

someone

хтось

хто-небудь

anybody/anyone

усякий

будь-який

somewhere

anywhere

десь

де-небудь

anywhere

де завгодно

куди завгодно

Interrogative

any

anything
що-небудь


anybody

anyone

хто-небудь

будь-хто

anywhere
де-небудь

куди-небудь

Negative


not ...

any
no


not...

anything

нічого

nothing
нічого

not ... anybody

not ... anyone

ніхто

nobody/no one

none

ніхто

not ... anywhere
ніде, нікуди

nowhere
ніде, нікуди

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

every

everything
усе

everybody

everyone

усякий, кожний, усе

everywhere
скрізь, усюди


QUANTITIVE PRONOUNS

few

little

мало, мало хто

недостатньо

Few birds can be seen in that place. (= almost none)

I know little about painting.

(= almost nothing)

Few and little have

a negative meaning. They mean not enough.

a few

кілька

a little

трохи

A few birds can be seen in that place. (= some birds)

I know a little about painting.
(= something)

A few, a little have

a positive meaning. They mean some though not much (many)


DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

Singular

Plural

this — цей, ця, це

that — той, та, те

these — ці

those — ті

DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

Adjectives
and Adverbs


Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Formation

One-syllable adjectives

and adverbs

old

wise

hot

easy

fast

early

older, elder wiser

hotter

easier

faster

earlier

oldest, eldest

wisest

hottest

easiest

fastest

earliest

For most

one-syllable adjectives and adverbs, -er and -est are added.

Two-syllable adjectives and adverbs

famous

slowly

more famous

more slowly

most famous

most slowly

For most two- syllable adj. and adv., more and most are used.




busy

pretty

busier

prettier

busiest

prettiest

-Er / -est are used with two-syllable adjectives that end in -y. The -y is changed to -i.




clever


gentle


friendly

cleverer

more clever
gentler

more gentle
friendlier

more friendly

cleverest

most clever
gentlest

most gentle
friendliest

most friendly

Some two-syllable adjectives use -er / -est or more / most: able , pleasant, angry,

handsome,simple, common, quiet,

narrow, sour, polite, cruel.

Adjectives and adverbs with three

or more

syllables

important
productive
carefully

more important

more productive

more

carefully

most

important

most productive

most

carefully

More and most are used with long adjectives and adverbs.


Irregular Adjectives and Adverbs

good/well

bad/badly

far

much/many

little

better

worse

farther/further

more

less

best

worst

farthest/furthest

most

least

Numerals

Cardinal Numerals (how many?)

Ordinal Numerals (Which?)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

1,000 1,000,000

one

two

three

four

five

six

seven

eight

nine

ten

eleven

twelve

thirteen

fourteen

fifteen

sixteen

seventeen

eighteen

nineteen

twenty

twenty-one

twenty-two

twenty-three

twenty-four

twenty-five

twenty-six

twenty-seven

twenty-eight

twenty-nine

thirty

forty

fifty

sixty

seventy

eighty

ninety

a hundred

a thousand

a million

first

second

third

fourth

fifth

sixth

seventh

eighth

ninth

tenth

eleventh

twelfth

thirteenth

fourteenth

fifteenth

sixteenth

seventeenth

eighteenth

nineteenth

twentieth

twenty-first

twenty-second

twenty-third

twenty-fourth

twenty-fifth

twenty-sixth

twenty-seventh

twenty-eighth

twenty-ninth

thirtieth

fortieth

fiftieth

sixtieth

seventieth

eightieth

ninetieth

hundredth

thousandth

millionth

140

400

1,006

5,000

260,127

a/one hundred and forty

four hundred

a/one thousand and six

five thousand

two hundred and sixty thousand, one hundred and twenty-seven

Dates

March 10, 1998  the tenth of March nineteen ninety-eight or
March the tenth nineteen ninety-eight

Fractional Numerals

Common Fractions :  a half;  a quarter;

 a/one fifth;  three fifths;

 one and a half;

 three and four fifths;

Decimal Fractions : 0.1  nought point one;

10.92  ten point nine two;

8.04  eight point nought four;

Percentage

a kind of decimal fraction, denominator of which is always 100: 2 %  2 per cent  2 pc  two per cent.

Roman

Numerals

1 I

2 II

3 III

4 IV

5  V

6  VI

7  VII

8  VIII

9  IX

10  X

11  XI

12  XII

13  XIII

14  XIV

15  XV

16  XVI

17  XVII

18  XVIII

19  XIX

20  XX

21  XXI

30  XXX

40  XL

50  L

60  LX

70  LXX

80  LXXX

90  XC

100  C

1000  M

NUMBERS IN MEASUREMENT


Weight

Measure

Міри ваги

1 dram

1 ounce

1 pound

1 stone

1 quarter

1 hundredweight

1 ton

драхма

унція

фунт

стон

квартер

хандредвейт

тонна

dr

oz (16 dr)

lb (16 oz)

st (14 lb)

gr (28 lb)

hwt (112 lb)

tn (20 hwt)

  1. g

  1. g

  1. g

  1. kg

  1. kg

  1. kg

1016 kg

Linear Measure

Лінійні міри

1 inch

1 foot

1 yard

1 mile

1 International

Nautical Mile

дюйм

фут

ярд

миля

миля морська

in

ft (12 in)

yd (3 ft)

ml (1760 yd)


INM (6076 ft)

  1. cm

  1. cm

  1. cm

  1. m


1.852 km

Dry Measure

Міри сипких речовин

1 gill

1 pint

1 quart

1 gallon

1 bushel

1 quarter

джил

пінта

кварта

галон

бушель

квартер

gi

pt (4 gills)

qt (2pt)

gal (4qt)

bu

qr (8 bu)

  1. l

0.57 l

  1. l

4.55 l

36.35 l

290.94 l

Square Measure

Міри площини

1 square inch

1 square foot

1 square yard

1 acre

1 square mile

кв. дюйм

кв. фут

кв. ярд

акр

кв. миля

sq in

sq ft (144 sq in)

sq yd (9 sq ft)

ac (4.8 sq yd)

sq ml (640 ac)

6.45 cm 2

9.29 dm 2

0.836 m 2

0.4 hectare

2.59 km 2

Cubic Measure

Міри об'єму

1 cubic inch

1 cubic foot
1 cubic yard

1 register ton

куб. дюйм

куб. фут
куб. ярд

тонна

реєстрова

cu in

cu ft (1728

cu in)

cu yd (27 cu ft)


reg t (100 cu ft)

16.39 cm 3

  1. cm 3


764.53 cm 3


2.83 m 3

Time Measure

Міри часу

1 minute

1 hour

1 day

1 week

хвилина

година

день

тиждень

60 seconds

60 minutes

24 hours

7 days

Angles Measure

Міри кута

1 minute

1 degree (1)

1 right angle

1 circle

хвилина

градус

прямий кут

розгорнений

кут

60 seconds (60)

60 minutes (60)

90 degrees (90)

360 degrees (360)

4 right angles

ОСОБОВІ ФОРМИ ДІЄСЛОВА

FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB


Дійсний спосіб
The Indicative Mood


Активний стан
Active Voice
to ask


Пасивний стан
Passive Voice
to be asked


Неозначені часи
Indefinite Tenses


to ask

Доконані часи
Perfect Tenses


to have asked

to be asked

to have been asked

Present

Past

Future

Present

Past

Future

ask
asks


asked

shall

ask

will

have

asked

has


had asked

shall

have

will asked

am

is asked

are

was

asked

were

shall

be

will asked

have

been

has asked

had been

asked

shall have

been

will asked


Тривалі часи

Continuous Tenses

to be asking


Перфектно-тривалі часи

Perfect Continuous Tenses

to have been asking

to be being asked

-

Present

Past

Future

Present

Past

Future

am

is asking

are

was

asking

were

shall be asking

will

have

been

has asking

had been

asking


shall have

been

will asking

am

is being

are asked


was

being

asked

were

-

-

-

-

INDEFINITE TENSES

(to work, to write)


Present Indefinite

work (s), write (s)

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I work, write
He/she works, writes
We/you/they work, write

Do I work, write ?
Does he/she work, write ?
Do we/you/

they work, write ?

I do not work, write
He/she does not work, write
We/you/they do not work, write

Do I not work,

write ?

Does he/she not work, write ?
Do we/you/they not work, write ?


Past Indefinite

worked, wrote

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I worked, wrote
He/she worked, wrote
We/you/they worked, wrote

Did I work, write ?
Did he/she work, write ?
Did we/you/

they work, write ?

I did not work,

write

He/she did not work, write
We/you/they/

did not work, write

Did I not work,

write ?

Did he/she not work, write ?
Did we/you/they not work, write ?


Future Indefinite

shall/will + work, write

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/we shall work, write
He/she/you/

they will work, write

Shall I/we work, write ?
Will he/she/

you/they work, write ?

I/we shall not work, write
He/she/you/

they will not work, write

Shall I/we not work, write ?
Will he/she/

you/they not work, write ?

CONTINUOUS TENSES

(to work, to write)


Present Continuous

am, is, are + working, writing

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I am working,

writing

He/she is

working, writing

We/you/they are working, writing

Am I working,

writing ?

Is he/she working,

writing ?

Are we/you/

they working, writing ?

I am not working,

writing

He/she is not

working, writing

We/you/they are not working, writing

Am I not working,

writing ?

Is he/she not

working, writing ?

Are we/you/they not working, writing ?


Past Continuous

was, were + working, writing

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/he/she was working, writing

We/you/they were working, writing

Was I/he/she working, writing ?

Were we/you/

they working, writing ?

I/he/she was not working, writing

We/you/they/

were not working, writing

Was I/he/she not working, writing ?

Were we/you/

they not working, writing ?


Future Continuous

shall/will + be working, writing

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/we shall be working, writing

He/she/you/

they will be working, writing

Shall I/we be working, writing ?

Will he/she/

you/they be working, writing ?

I/we shall not be working, writing

He/she/you/

they will not be working, writing

Shall I/we not be working, writing ?

Will he/she/

you/they not be working, writing ?

PERFECT TENSES

(to work, to write)


Present Perfect

have, has + worked, written

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/we/you/they

have worked, written
He/she has

worked, written


Have I/we/

you/they worked, written ?
Has he/she worked, written ?


I/we/you/they have not worked, written
He/she has not worked, written


Have I/we/

you/they not worked, written ?
Has he/she not worked, written ?






Past Perfect

had+ worked, written

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/he/she/we/

you/they had worked, written

Had I/he/she /

we/you/they worked, written ?

I/he/she/we/

you/they had not worked, written

Had I/he/she/

we/you/they not worked, written ?






Future Perfect

shall/will have + worked, written

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/ We shall have worked, written
He/she/you/

they will have worked, written


Shall I/we have worked, written ?
Will he/she/

you/they have worked, written ?

I/ We shall not have worked,

written

He/she/you/

they will not have worked, written


Shall I/we not have worked, written ?
Will he/she/

you/they not

have worked, written

PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES

(to work, to write)


Present Perfect Continuous

have, has + been + working, writing

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/we/you/they have been working, writing
He/she has been working, writing


Have I/we/

you/they been working, writing ?
Has he/she been working, writing ?

I/we/you/they have not been working, writing
He/she has not been working, writing ?

Have I/we/

you/ they not been working, writing ?
Has he/she not been working, writing ?


Past Perfect Continuous

had + been + working, writing

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/he/she/we/

you/they had been working, writing


Had I/he/she/

we/you/they been working, writing ?


I/he/she/we/

you/they had not been working, writing


Had I/he/she/

we/you/they not been working, writing ?



Future Perfect Continuous

shall/will + have been working, writing

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/we shall have been working, writing
He/she/you/

they will have been working, writing

Shall I/we have been working, writing ?
Will he/she/

you/they have been working, writing ?

I/we shall not have been working, writing
He/she/you/

they will not have been working, writing

Shall I/we not have been working, writing ?
Will he/she/

you/they not have been working, writing ?

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VERB « TO BE»


Functions

Examples

1. The Notional Verb

He is at home now.
The students are in the classroom.

2. An Auxiliary Verb

He is writing a letter.
I was asked a difficult question.

3. A Link Verb

Jhon is a student. He is intelligent.
He is the best student in our group.

4. A Modal Verb


We are to meet at noon.
They are to begin this work at once.



THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VERB « TO HAVE»


Functions

Examples

1. The Notional Verb

She has a large family.
We have got a comfortable flat.

2. An Auxiliary Verb

He has graduated from the University.
I have been waiting for you for half an hour.

3. A Modal Verb

I have to get up early on Mondays.
They had to go there. He will have to do it.



THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VERB « TO DO »


Functions

Examples

1. The Notional Verb

The exercise was done well.
You didn't do anything to help her.

2. An Auxiliary Verb

a) The Present and Past Indefinite (interrogative and negative forms)

b) The Imperative Mood (negative form)

c) to express emphasis


He doesn't work here.

Did you see him yesterday? — Yes, I did.

Don't be late for the lessons.

But I do know him.
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