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UNIT 6


TOPIC: FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

TEXT A

TEXT B

GRAMMAR: The Past and Future Continuous Tenses

Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

Numerals


READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

satisfy, scarcity, factor, labour, capital, nature, natural, naturally, effort, gift, land, desert, fertile, rainfall, sunshine, grow, growth, farmland, minerals, crop, fix, famine, impact, quantity, quality, primary;

b) stress the second syllable:

produce, production, productive, distribute, deposits, available, dramatic, expand, supply, include, provide, ability, enjoy, disease, indefinitely;

c) stress the third syllable:

population, immigration, manufacture, represent.
Text A

The reason people cannot satisfy all their wants and needs 1 is the scarcity of productive resources. These resources or factors of production 2 are called land, labour, capital, and organization or entrepreneurship 3. They provide the means for a society to produce and distribute its goods and services.

As an economic term land means the gifts of nature 4 or natural resources not created by human efforts. They are the things provided by nature that go into the creation of goods and services. Land has a broad meaning. It is not only land itself, but also what lies under the land (like coal and gold), what grows naturally on top of the land (like forests and wild animals), what is around the land in the seas and oceans and under the seas and oceans (like fish and oil). It includes deserts, fertile fields, forests, mineral deposits, rainfall, sunshine and the climate necessary to grow crops.

Because there are only so many natural resources available at any given time, economists tend to think of land as being fixed or in limited supply. There is not enough good farmland to feed all of the earth's population enough, sandy beaches for everyone to enjoy, or enough minerals to meet people's expending energy needs indefinitely.

The second factor of production is labour — people with all their efforts and abilities. Unlike land, labour is a resource that may vary in size over time. Historically, factors such as population growth, immigration, famine, war and disease have had a dramatic impact 5 on both the quantity and quality of labour.

Labour is the human input into the production process. It may be mental or physical. But in many tasks it is necessary to combine mental activity with physical effort. The price paid for the use of labour is called wages 6. Wages represent income 7 to workers, who own their labour. Land and labour are often called primary factors of production 8. It is one whose quantity is determined outside the economy.

COMMENTS

1. wants and needs — бажання та потреби

2. factors of production — фактори виробництва

3. entrepreneurship — підприємництво

4. gifts of nature — дари природи

5. dramatic impact — вирiшальний вплив

6. wages — заробітна плата

7. income — дохід, прибуток

8. primary factor of production — первинний фактор виробництва

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Give the corresponding nouns to the following verbs:

to produce, to distribute, to grow, to populate, to enjoy, to satisfy, to vary, to immigrate, to require, to educate, to construct, to distinguish, to manufacture, to determine, to create, to equip, to combine.

II. Match the synonyms:

to produce, to distribute, scarce, to influence, to manufacture, to impact, revenue, production, to deal out, to provide, deficient, manufacturing, to satisfy, wages, to supply, salary, to meet, income.

III. Find equivalents:


1. to satisfy needs and wants

2. wages

3. dramatic impact

4. primary factor of production

5. mental activity

6. gifts of nature

7. natural resources

8. human efforts

9. fertile fields

  1. mineral deposits

  2. to grow crops

12. in limited supply

а. первинний фактор виробництва

б. в обмежених запасах

в. кориснi копалини

г. родючi поля

д. заробітна плата

е. вирощувати культури

є. вирiшальний вплив

ж. людськi зусилля

з. розумова діяльність

і. задовольняти потреби та бажання

i. природнi ресурси

ї. дарі природи

IV. Match the antonyms:

natural, fertile fields, unlimited resources, indefinitely, limited resources, inside, artificial, production, immigration, inability, to destroy, unemployment, definitely, ability, to create, employment, to satisfy, emmigration, consumption, income, deserts, outside, scarcity, to dissatisfy, abundance, expenses.

V. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Natural resources are not created ... human efforts. 2. They are the things provided ... nature that go ... the creation ... goods and services.
3. Land is not only land itself, but also what lies ... the land, what grows naturally ... top ... the land, what is ... the land ... the seas and oceans and ... the seas and oceans. 4. Economists tend to think ... land as being fixed or ... limited supply. 5. Unlike ... land, labour is a resource that may vary ... size ... time. 6. Labour is the human input ... the production process.

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1. The reason people cannot satisfy all their wants and needs is ... .
2. Factors of production are called ... . 3. They provide ... . 4. As an economic term land means ... . 5. Land is not only land itself ... . 6. It includes ... . 7. The second factor of production is ... . 8. Unlike land, labour is ... . 9. Historically, factors such as ... . 10. Labour may be ... . 11. The price paid for the use of labour is called ... . 12. Wages represent ... . 13. Land and labour are often called ... .

VI I . Answer the following questions:

1. What is the reason people cannot satisfy all their wants and needs?
2. What is called factors of production? 3. What do they provide? 4. What does land mean as an economic term? 5. What do natural resources include? 6. What do economists think of land ? 7. What is the second factor of production? 8. What is labour in economics? 9. What is the difference between the terms land and labour ? 10. What has had a dramatic impact on both the quantity and quality of labour? 11. What is called wages? 12. Land and labour are often called primary factors of production, aren't they?

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Є чотири фактори виробництва: земля, праця, капiтал і підприємництво. 2. Як економiчний термiн земля означає дари природи або природнi ресурси, не створенi людськими зусиллями. 3. Вона включає родючi поля, лiси, пустелi, кориснi копалини, сонячне свiтло, опади та клiмат, необхiдний для вирощування культур. 4. Праця — це люди зі своїми здiбностями та зусиллями, необхiдними для виробництва товарiв та послуг. 5. Iсторично такi фактори, як зростання кількості населення, iмiграцiя, голод, вiйни та хвороби мали вирiшальний вплив як на кiлькiсть, так i на якicть працi. 6. Землю і працю часто називають первинними факторами виробництва.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

capital, factory, durable, input, output, textile, money, presence, process, profit, firm, innovative, effort, item, suffer, loss;

b) stress the second syllable:

equipment, produce, production, economy, create, assemble, distinguish, financial, unique, construction, require, employ, successful, return, reward;

c) stress the third syllable:

education, educating, managerial;

d) stress the fourth syllable:

organizational, entrepreneur, entrepreneurship.

Text B

The third factor of production is capital — the tools, equipment and factories used in production of goods and services. It is a produced factor of production, a durable input which is itself an output 1 of the economy. For example, we build a textile factory and use it to produce shirts, or assemble
a computer and then employ it in educating students.

As noted earlier, such items are also called capital goods 2. This is to distinguish them from financial capital 3, the money used to buy the tools and equipment used in production.

Capital is unique in that, it is the result of production. A bulldozer may be an example of capital goods used in construction. At the same time 4, it was manufactured in a factory which makes it the result of earlier production.

When the three inputs 5 land, labour and capital — are present, production or the process of creating goods and services, can take place. Even the production of the service called education requires the presence of land, labour and capital.

Entrepreneurship , the managerial or organizational skills 6 needed by most firms to produce goods and services, is the fourth factor of production. The entrepreneur brings together the other three factors of production — land, labour and capital. When they are successful, entrepreneurs earn profits 7, the return or reward 8 for the risks, innovative ideas and efforts put into the business. When they are not successful, they suffer losses 9.

COMMENTS

1. output — випуск, продукція

2. capital goods — засоби виробництва

3. financial capital — фінансовий капітал

4. at the same time — у той самий час, водночас

5. input — фактор, що впроваджується

6. managerial or organizational skills — організаційні або управлінські здібності

7. profit — прибуток

8. return or reward — прибуток або винагорода

9. to suffer losses — зазнавати збитків

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Name the word-building elements (suffixes, prefixes) and

the part of speech of each word:

to manage — manageable — managing — management — manager — managerial; entrepreneur — entrepreneurial — entrepreneurship; to produce — produce — producer — product — production — productive — productively — productiveness — productivity; profit — profitability — profitable — profiteer — profiteering — profitless.

II. Give the English equivalents for:

земля; праця; капiтал; фактори виробництва; продукція; водночас; підприємництво; отримувати прибуток; виробництво товарів та послуг; фактор, що впроваджується; фінансовий капітал; організаційні та управлінські здібності; засоби виробництва; зазнавати збитків.
III. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms

from the list:

financial capital; profit; entrepreneur; factors of production; capital; inputs; goods and services; losses; capital goods.

1. _________ is a produced factor of production. 2. _________ include plant and machinery, industrial buildings, and raw material.
3. __________ is the money used to buy the tools and equipment used in production. 4. When the three ________ are present, production or the process of creating ________ can take place. 5. An ___________ is an individual who owns and operates his own business in the hope of earning ________ . 6. The entrepreneur brings together the other three ________ .
7. When the business is not successful, entrepreneurs suffer ________ .

IV. Complete the following sentences:

1. The third factor of production is ... . 2. Capital is a produced factor of production ... . 3. Financial capital is ... . 4. Capital is unique in that, it is ... .
5. When the three inputs — land, labour and capital — are present, ... . 6. Even the production of the service called education requires ... . 7. Entrepreneurship, the managerial or organizational skills needed by most firms to produce goods and services, is ... . 8. The entrepreneur brings together ... . 9. When they are successful, entrepreneurs ... . 10. Profit is ... . 11. When they are not successful, ... .

V. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B

1. labour

a. Anything that goes into the production process.

2. capital goods

b. Money gained in business; the difference between the amount earned and the amount spent.

3. financial capital

c. The human effort required to produce goods

and services.

4. production

d. Something created to produce other goods and services.

5. inputs

e. The money used to buy the tools and equipment used in production.

6. land

f. The productive resources of land, labour and capital.

7. profit

g. Natural resources that go into the creation of goods and services.

8. factors of production

h. The process of creating goods and services.




  1. Define which of the following items best completes

the statement:

1. An example of capital good s may be

a. a computer.

b. a factory.

c. a TV set.

d. equipment.

2. Entrepreneurship is

a. always profitable.

b. limited to highly educated adults.

c. a factor of production.

d. never without risk in our economic system.

3. The price or return for the use of capital is called

a. rent.

b. wages.

c. interest.

d. profit.

VII. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are
false say why:


1. Capital is a produced factor of production. 2. When the three inputs are present, production or the process of creating goods and services, can take place. 3. The production of the service called education doesn't always require the presence of land, labour and capital. 4. An entrepreneur has a lot of rewards and few risks. 5. Only the wealthy can be entrepreneurs.

VIII. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the third factor of production? 2. Capital is a produced factor of production, isn't it? 3. What do capital goods include? 4. What is financial capital? 5. When can production take place? 6. What does the production of the service called education require? 7. What is entrepreneurship? 8. When do entrepreneurs earn profit? 9. What is profit? 10. When do entrepreneurs suffer losses?

IX. Translate into English:

1. Засоби виробництва — це машини, iнструменти, устаткування, які використовуються в процесі виробництва. 2. Капiтал унiкальний тим, що вiн є результатом виробництва. 3. Люди користуються грошима, щоб купувати інструменти та устаткування для виробництва.
4. Виробництво може мати мiсце, коли наявнi всi три запроваджувальні фактори виробництва — земля, праця i капiтал. 5. Освіта як виробництво послуги також потребує наявності всіх трьох факторів виробництва. 6. Підприємництво — це організаційні та управлінські здібності, необхідні для виробництва товарів або послуг з метою отримання прибутку.

X. Retell the text B using the following words and

word-combinations:

factor of production; capital; production of goods and services; durable input; a produced factor of production; output; capital goods; financial capital; at the same time; to take place; land; labour; capital; the process of creating goods and services; entrepreneurship; the managerial or organizational skills; to produce goods and services; entrepreneur; to bring together; to earn profits; innovative ideas and efforts; to suffer losses.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES

The Past Continuous Tense

I. Give short and full answers:

1. Were you preparing your homework at six o'clock yesterday? 2. Were you working hard at your English while you were at school? 3. Were you doing anything at noon? 4. Was your friend waiting for you at ten? 5. Was it snowing all day yesterday? 6. Was your mother cooking dinner the whole morning?

II. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

Pattern: Robert was having his English at ten.

Was Robert having his English at ten?

Robert was n't /was not/ having his English at ten.

They were working in the library from 3 to 5.

W ere they working in the library from 3 to 5?

They were n't /were not/ working in the library from 3 to 5.

1. Tom was preparing for his examination the whole day. 2. They were working quietly. 3. It was raining at noon. 4. She was wearing a hat.
5. His son was going to be a painter. 6. She was speaking too slowly.
7. Peter was hurrying to the canteen when we met him. 8. Father was watching TV when the phone rang.

III. Answer the following questions:

1. What were you doing when I entered the classroom? 2. Were you studying English grammar? 3. What were you doing at three o'clock yesterday? 4. What were you doing when I rang you up? 5. Whom were you speaking to when I saw you? 6. What was your mother doing when you returned home? 7. Was it raining the whole day yesterday? 8. What were you thinking about when I asked you these questions?

IV. Put questions to the italicized words:

1. He was waiting for a bus. 2. The man was reading a magazine when somebody knocked at the door. 3. The boy was skating. 4. Nick and Tom were watching a TV programme the whole evening. 5. It was snowing when we went out. 6. The teacher was correcting papers at her desk. 7. She was looking after her little brother. 8. They were talking about Margaret.
V. Complete the sentences in your own way:

1. It was snowing heavily when ... . 2. She was sleeping when ... .
3. We were listening to music when ... . 4. She was having lunch when ... .
5. When I saw him, he ... . 6. When he opened the door, they ... . 7. We were swimming in the river when ... . 8. They were having their holidays when ... . 9. What were you doing while ... ? 10. We were returning home when ... . 11. While she was quarrelling with him ... . 12. It was going to rain when ... .

VI. Complete the disjunctive questions:

1. The students were discussing an article, ... ? 2. It was snowing heavily all day long, ... ? 3. Father wasn't watching television at that time, ... ? 4. Peter was hurring to the canteen, ... ? 5. The children weren't playing in the yard, ... ? 6. They were crossing the street at the wrong place, ... ? 7. You were making a fire when it began to rain, ... ? 8. Olga was preparing for her exams in May, ... ?

VII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. It was raining hard yesterday and they had to stay at home. 2. When I came in he didn't see me, as he was doing something. 3. While I was swimming someone stole my clothes and I had to walk home in my swimsuit.
4. She was standing at the bus stop. I asked her what bus she was waiting for. 5. The train couldn't stop, as it was travelling too fast at that time. 6. The car had nobody in it but the engine was running. 7. My wife and I were talking about you the other day. 8. The children were frightened because it was getting dark.
VIII. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Indefinite or

Past Continuous Tense:

1. He suddenly ( realize) that he ( travel) in the wrong direction. 2. When you ( see) him last? 3. He ( have) a bath when the phone rang. Very unwillingly he ( get) out of the bath and ( go) to answer it. 4. I ( share) a flat with him when we were students. He always ( complain) about my untidiness. 5. When I ( hear) the кnock I ( go) to the door and ( open) it, but I ( not recognize) him at first because he ( wear) dark glasses. 6. The whole family ( watch) a detective film on TV when I ( come) into the room. 7. You looked very busy when I ( see) you last night. What you ( do)? 8. We ( not go) out because it ( rain) 9. The house was quiet. The boys (play) chess and Mary ( read) a book. 10. Who you ( talk) to on the telephone as I came in?

IX. Translate into English:

1. З ким ти вчора розмовляв, коли я зустрів тебе на вулиці? — Із другом. Він приїхав з Одеси два дні тому. Він поспішав до університету, коли я його зустрів. 2. Де ти був о третій годині? Я телефонував тобі, але ніхто не відповів. — Я був у бібліотеці. Я готувався до семінару в цей час. 3. Я повертався додому пізно. Дощу не було, але дув сильний вітер. Коли я прийшов додому, мій молодший брат спав, мама готувала вечерю, а батько дивився телевізор. 4. Коли він прокинувся, його дружина сиділа біля вікна і щось читала. 5. Цікаво, яку пісню ви співали, коли ми прийшли?
The Future Continuous Tense

X. Give short and full answers:

1. Will you be waiting for us at this time tomorrow? 2. Will our partners be organizing the conference in January? 3. Will you be doing your homework after supper? 4. Will they be speaking to their friends at the meeting tomorrow? 5. Will your parents be giving a party on Sunday?
6. Will you be practising your English all day? 7. Will you be working late this evening? 8. Will your teacher be explaining the rule at the lesson?

XI. Answer the following questions:

1. What will you be doing in the afternoon? 2. Who will be waiting for you after classes? 3. Where will your friend be waiting for you? 4. Will you be watching your favourite TV programme? 5. Will you be doing your homework after supper? 6. Will you be practising your English? 7. I wonder what you will be doing at this time tomorrow. 8. Will you be working all day tomorrow? 9. Will you be reading up for your exams in May?
XII. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

Pattern: He will be wait ing for you at 6 tomorrow.

W ill he be wait ing for you at 6 tomorrow?

He won't / will not/ be wait ing for you at 6 tomorrow.

1. John will be flying over the Pyrenees in a few days. 2. At 9.30 he will be watching the match on TV. 3. The students will be considering this problem at this time tomorrow. 4. You'll be translating these sentences at the lesson next week. 5. He will be expecting me at three o'clock. 6. She will be writing a letter tonight. 7. We shall be flying to London at this time tomorrow. 8. We shall be packing our things when you come.

XIII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. If you come after eleven o'clock, I shall be sleeping. 2. While you are having dinner, I shall be reading the newspaper. 3. They will be having supper when we come. 4. Don't be late. He will be waiting for you in the library at nine o'clock. 5. Don't ring her up at six. She will be putting the children to bed. Ring later. 6. You'd better go back now. Your mother will be wondering where you are. 7. She can't come at two o'clock tomorrow, because she'll be giving a lesson at that time.

XIV. Put questions to the italicized words:

1. The train will be approaching to the station at 10 o'clock. 2. They will be receiving their friends at this time the day after tomorrow. 3. Her son will be doing his military service next year. 4. My sister will be interviewing a foreign guest. 5. She will be reading a detective story tomorrow evening.
6. At this time next year Helen will be enjoying the sunshine of the Crimea. 7. My grandfather will be working in the garden when you arrive. 8. Your friends will be waiting at the airport to greet you.

XV. Complete the disjunctive questions:

1. Peter will be watching the match on television tonight, ... ? 2. She will be singing Ukrainian folk songs at the concert tomorrow, ... ? 3. His father will be repairing the car the whole day, ... ? 4.Your Granny won't be grumbling, ... ? 5. It won't be raining tomorrow morning, ... ? 6. He'll be returning home at that time, ... ?

XVI. Change the following sentences into the Future Continuous:

1. He is talking to a friend of his. 2. Where are you hurrying to? -
I am hurrying to the railway station. 3. My wife is preparing for departure.
4. I shall wait for you at the metro station. 5. Mary will bathe in the Black Sea next week. 6. Richard will type business letters tomorrow. 7. My daughter is washing her dress. 8. They were having dinner at three.

XVII. Complete the following sentences:

1. I think we'll be there in time ( we, come by the fast train). 2. Don't leave yet ( we, have an interesting conversation). 3. Look, it is getting dark ( it, rain in a minute). 4. There is nothing he likes better than to tell stories. I wonder which ( he, tell us next). 5. She will not come ( she, move to a new flat). 6. He won't go for a walk ( he, work on his report).

XVIII. Translate into English:

1. Я ще працюватиму, коли ви повернетеся. 2. Приходьте, будь-ласка. Лектор розповідатиме про свою поїздку до Англії. 3. Улітку ви, звичайно, знову будете подорожувати. 4. Ходімо швидше. За хвилину піде дощ. 5. Студенти писатимуть курсову роботу в квітні. 6. Завтра
о цій порі вони під'їжджатимуть до Києва.
Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

  1. Give the comparative and superlative forms of the following

adjectives and adverbs:

a) big, heavy, short, dirty, clean, near, bad, little, much, wet, cheap, pale, hot, large, fat, early, pretty, happy, bright, dark, dry, flat, fresh, full, quick, late, rich, clever, good, far, thin, thick, weak, easy.

b) famous, expensive, wonderful, important, active, difficult, interesting, beautiful, comfortable, careful, pleasant, active, popular.

XX. Answer the following questions:

a) 1. Which country is larger: England or the United States of America? 2. Is Kyiv larger than New York? 3. Is the Black Sea deeper than the Caspian Sea? 4. Which month is longer: March or April? 5. When is it warmer: in April or in May? 6. When is it colder: in November or in December?

b) 1. Which is the longest/shortest day of the year? 2. Which is the shortest month of the year? 3. Which is the largest city in Ukraine? 4. Which is the largest city in the United States of America? 5. Which is the deepest lake in the world? 6. Which is the highest mountain in the world?

XXI. Complete the following sentences by using as ... as:

Pattern: I'm quite tall but you are taller. I'm not as tall as you.

1. My salary is high but yours is higher. My salary isn't ___________ . 2. They have lived here for quite a long time but we've lived here longer. They haven't _________ . 3. I still feel quite tired but I felt a lot more tired yesterday. I don't _______ . 4. The weather is unpleasant today but yesterday it was worse. The weather isn't ___________ . 5. I was a bit nervous before the interview but usually I'm a lot more nervous. I wasn't ___________ . 6. He works reasonably hard but he used to work much harder. He doesn't ___________ .

XXII. Write sentences making a comparison between the two

given words:

Pattern: eye (bright) stars — Her eyes were as bright as stars.

1. night (black) pitch; 2. apple (sweet) honey; 3. eyes (blue) sky; 4. linen (white) snow; 5. child (timid) deer; 6. water (cold) ice; 7. voice (sweet) music.
XXIII. Make sentences with the same meaning by using as ... as :

Pattern: Nick is younger than Mary. — - Nick isn't as old as Mary.

1. American coffee is weaker than Turkish coffee. 2. Hamburger is less expensive than steak. 3. Money is less important than good health.
4. Tom's pronunciation is worse than Ann's. 5. In my opinion, English is more difficult than German. 6. I'm shorter than my sister.
XXIV. Fill in the blanks with as ... as or not so ... as :

1. This story is ... long ... that one, but it is ... interesting. 2. He is ... old ... he looks. 3. He is ... strong ... his brother. 4. The temperature today is ... high ... it was yesterday. 5. I am ... busy today ... you are. 6. My sister knows English ... well ... I do. 7. Janet is ... attractive ... Helen. 8. My friend's car is ... new ... mine.

XXV. Translate into English:

1. Сьогодні так само холодно, як і вчора. 2. Моє пальто не таке тепле, як ваше. 3. Волосся у старого було біле, наче сніг. 4. Апельсини, що їх ви купили, кислі, наче лимони. 5. Щоки у хлопчика були червоні, наче яблука. 6. Дівчина була гарна, наче троянда. Шкіра в неї була ніжна, наче в дитини, а очі голубі, як небо. 7. Микола так само дотепний, як і його батько. 8. Діти в сусідній кімнаті були тихі, наче миші.

XXVI. Translate into Ukrainian.

1. The Dnipro is much longer than the Thames. 2. He is the best of my friends. 3. This book is far better than that one. 4. I have never seen such a tall man. 5. The Baltic Sea is not so warm as the Black Sea. 6. This road is worse than any other. 7. She was as white as a sheet. 8. The weather is getting colder and colder. 9. The Severn is the longest river in Great Britain. 10. The more you study the better you pass your exams.
XXVII. Translate into English:

Ваш брат старший за вас? — Ні, я найстарший у сім' ї. Мій брат удвічі молодший за мене, але так само високий, як я. — Ви такий же енергійний, як ваш брат? — Ні, я не такий енергійний, як мій брат. Моя робота не така цікава, як у нього. Він дуже любить читати. Він витрачає більшу частину своїх грошей на книжки. У нього набагато більше вільного часу, ніж у мене, і він багато читає. Що більше він читає, то більше він знає. Більшість його друзів живе в Москві.
Numerals

XXVIII. Write in words and read the following

a) cardinal numerals:

2; 12; 20; 9; 19; 90; 100; 999; 21; 205; 705; 1,000; 4,568; 6,008; 15,500; 75,137; 321,103; 1,306,527; 257,382,761;

b) ordinal numerals:

1; 11; 3; 13; 30; 4; 14; 40; 5; 15; 50; 8; 18; 80; 100; 103; 230; 300; 425; 563; 705; 892; 1,015;

c) fractional numerals:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; 0.1; 0.25; 3.5; 2.34; 5.37; 12.3; 52.51; 132.054;

d) dates:

2.01.46; 1.09.98; 22.10.28; 5.04.61; 29.05.40; 12.08.30; 30.11.82;

e) roman numerals:

I; II; III; IV; V; VI; VII; VIII; IX; X; XI; XII; XIII; XX; XXX; XL; L; LX; LXX; XC; D; M.

XXIX. Answer the following questions:

1. How much is 17 plus 19? 2. How much is 25 plus 42? 3. How much is 120 plus 206? 4. How much is 22 minus 8? 5. How much is 150 minus 45? 6. How much is 7 multiplied by 5? 7. How much is 4 multiplied by 25? 8. How much is 72 divided by 6?
XXX. Do the sums and read them:
15 + 25 = 125 – 14 = 4 26 =

135 + 28 = 841 – 34 = 4 =

628 + 34 = - = 35 : 5 =

+ = 10.218 – 3.5 = 1182 : 2 =

+ 18 = 34.528 – 0.528 = : 3 =

7.13 + 4.015 = 6 7 = 2.46 : 2 =
XXXI. Translate into English:

50 кілограмів; 61 грам; 281 долар; півтори тонни; 3/5 тонни; сотні ящиків; тисячі книжок; 1/4 кілометра; 2/3 процента; 1,5 години; процента; дюйма; 0,105 метра; 2,18 фунта; 1/2 фунта; пенси;
5 процентів; 23 процента; 0,36 процента; 2,5 проценти; 17,562 тонни.
EXERCISES for individual work

I. Insert the auxiliary verbs:

1. ... your father fishing all day yesterday? 2. What ... he doing at five o'clock yesterday? 3. What ... you looking for when I came in? 4. ... the students writing a test at that time? 5. During the party Jane ... sitting all the time. 6. He caught cold when he ... walking in the rain without a rain coat. 7. The children ... skating on the pond all day long. 8. John ... taking his examination at 5 o'clock.

II. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Continuous Tense:

1. The children were frightened because it ( get) dark. 2. My wife and I ( talk) about you the other day. 3. Who you ( talk) to on the telephone as I came in? I ( talk) to Mr Smith. 4. Where he ( live) when you saw him last? 5. When I first met him he ( work) in a restaurant. 6. She ( stand) at the bus stop. I asked her what bus she ( wait) for. 7. I ( make) a cake when the light went out. I had to finish it in the dark. 8. The house was in great disorder because he ( decorate) it. 9. He usually wears sandals but when I last saw him he ( wear) boots.

III. Change the following sentences into the Past Continuous:

1. A man is standing near the door. 2. We are not sitting by the window. 3. Where are you hurrying to? — I am hurrying to the railway station. 4. Peter is waiting for his friend. 5. Is Mary wearing a white dress? 6. The children are playing in the garden. 7. They are making a lot of noise. 8. My sister is washing her dress. 9. He is talking to a friend of his.
IV. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Indefinite or

Past Continuous Tense:

1. What you ( think) of his last book?  I (like) it very much. 2. I didn't want to meet Paul so when he entered the room I ( leave). 3. Unfortunately, when I arrived Ann just ( leave), so we only had time for a few words. 4. Her mother often ( tell) her that she ( spend) too much money but she never ( listen). 5. When I ( look) for my passport I ( find) this old photograph.
6. I just ( open) the letter when the wind ( blow) it out of my hand.
V. Translate into English:

1. Він проглядав газети, коли побачив це повідомлення. 2. Ми бачили їх учора. Вони гуляли в саду. 3. Коли ми повернемося додому, мати вже накриватиме на стіл. 4. Цікаво, що ви будете робити о цій порі наступної п'ятниці?  Як завжди, працюватиму. Я працюватиму цілий день. З 9 до 11 ранку я буду готувати доповідь у бібліотеці. Потім я читатиму лекцію для студентів нашого університету. У суботу я буду на стадіоні. Я тренуватимуся цілий день. 5. Чому ти запрошуєш їх до себе? Хіба ти не будеш готуватися до екзаменів? 6. Вона не співатиме завтра на концерті. У неї болить горло.
VI. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Continuous Tense:

1. This time next month I ( sit) on a beach. 2. I ( wait) for you when you come out. 3. We'd better go out tomorrow because Mary ( practise) the piano all day. 4. When you arrive I probably ( pick) fruit. 5. When I get home my dog ( sit) at the door waiting for me. 6. He ( use) the car this afternoon.
7. When you next see me I ( wear) my new dress. 8. It's a serious injury but he ( walk) again in six weeks. 9. That football club has lost some of its players. They ( look out) for new men. 10. When we reach England it very likely ( rain). 11. Why did you take his razor? He will ( look for) it everywhere tomorrow.

VII. Complete the following sentences by using adjectives:

1. The weather is hot today, but it was ________ yesterday. 2. My hair is light, but my brother's hair is __________ . 3. These dishes are clean, but those dishes are _________ . 4. An orange is sweet, but a lemon _________ . 5. This suitcase is heavy, but that suitcase is _________ . 6. Linda is tall, but her sister is _______ . 7. This street is narrow, but that street is ______ .
8. This exercise is easy, but that exercise is _________ . 9. A chicken is stupid, but a human being is _______ . 10. A kitten is weak, but a horse is _________ . 11. Dick is fat, but his brother is _______ . 12. This answer is right, but that answer is ________ . 13. Tom is hard-working, but his brother is __________ .
VIII. Translate into English:

1. Сьогодні не так холодно, як учора. Сьогодні набагато тепліше і вітер не такий сильний, як учора. 2. Ваша кімната в два рази більша за мою, але моя так само світла, як і ваша. 3. Це найнудніший фільм з усіх, які я коли-небудь бачила. 4. Він був голодний, як вовк. 5. У мене в два рази менше англійських книг, ніж французьких. 6. Його валіза значно важча за мою. 7. Хто найліпший студент у вашій групі? 8. Лист має бути якомога коротшим. 9. Це найкоротший шлях до станції. 10. Я на п'ять років старший від своєї сестри. 11. Мій старший син уже пішов на роботу. 12. Це був найщасливіший день у моєму житті. 13. Ця будівля найстаріша в нашому місті. 14. Ця пісня найпопулярніша нині. 15. Більшість моїх знайомих  студенти. 16. Цей текст найскладніший із усіх текстів, які ми коли-небудь перекладали.
IX. Put the adjectives in brackets into the correct form:

1. It was ( good) meal I've ever had. 2. Tokyo is one of ( large) cities in the world. 3. The examination was ( easy) than we expected. 4. ( Old) he grew ( wise) he became. 5. Who is your ( good) friend? 6. Iron is ( useful) of all metals. 7. Are you ( young) than me? 8. The twenty second of December is ( short) day of the year. 9. Silver is ( heavy) than copper. 10. Australia is ( small) continent in the world. 11. London is ( large) city in England. 12. Yesterday was ( hot) day we have had this summer. 13. My brother is ( old) than I am. 14. Wood isn't as ( hard) as metal. 15. I think good health is ( important) thing in life. 16. This room is ( small) than all the rooms in the house.



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