Kunatenko Y. English

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UNIT 3


TOPIC: ECONOMY of GREAT BRITAIN

TEXT A

TEXT B

TEXT C

GRAMMAR: Participle I. The Present Continuous Tense

The Construction to be going to

The Functions of the Verb to be


READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

naval, power, primarily, public, private, enterprise, industry, nationalize, government, ferrous, transport, manage, sector, service, share, agriculture, vital, rise, workforce, company, nation, partly, presence, mineral, marble, granite, tin, slate, lead, copper, zinc, valuable, textile, science;

b) stress the second syllable:

economy, industrial, developed, electric, demand, account, predominate, technology, metallurgy, percentage, deposit, accessible, considerable, employ.
Text A

Great Britain is a highly-developed naval and industrial power. Its economy was primarily based on private enterprises. However, some industries were nationalized after World War II. Now it has a mixed private- and public-enterprise economy 1. The government controls the coal-mining and electric power industries, ferrous metallurgy and shipbuilding. Part of public transport, civil aviation and national bank are also managed by the state.

The main sectors of British economy are manufacturing, services and agriculture. The share of industry in GNP 2 is 11 times more than that of agriculture. Manufacturing plays a vital role in British economy. It accounts for 1/5 of the GNP and employs less than 1/3 of the workforce 3. Small companies predominate, though companies with 500 or more employees employ a larger percentage of the workforce.

The rise of Great Britain as an industrial nation 4 was partly due to 5 the presence of considerable mineral resources, the most important of them being coal and iron. Next to coal and iron the chief minerals found on the British Isles are the building stone, marble, granite, slate, lead, tin, copper, zink, salt and china clay. But in the course of the last hundred years many of Britain's most valuable and accessible deposits have been worked out.

Coal-mining, metallurgy, textile, shipbuilding are the older branches of industry. The new industries are the chemical, electrotechnical, automobile, aeromissile and electronics. The new industries have developed hand in hand 6 with science and technology and are equipped to meet present technical demands.

Big cities and towns such as London, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield and Birmingham have enterprises of nearly all branches of industry. The main centres of cotton and woolen industry are Leeds, Bradford and Manchester.

COMMENTS

1. mixed private- and public-enterprise economy — змiшана економiка,

що ґрунтується на приватному та державному пiдприємництвi

2. GNP — ВНП (валовий нацiональний продукт)

3. workforce — робоча сила

4. industrial nation — промислова держава

5. due to — зумовленo

6. hand in hand — плiч-о-плiч

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Find equivalents:

1. coal-mining a. змiшана економiка

2. GNP б. авiаракетна промисловiсть

3. hand in hand в. приватне пiдприємство

4. industrial nation г. енергетична промисловiсть

5. private enterprise д. суднобудування

6. power industry е. промислова держава

7. public transport є. плiч-о-плiч

8. workforce ж.чорна металургія

9. shipbuilding з. громадський транспорт

10. mixed economy и. ВНП (валовий нацiональний продукт)

11. cotton industry і. робоча сила

12. aeromissile industry ї. бавовництво

13. ferrous metallurgy й. вугледобувна промисловiсть

II. Give the corresponding nouns to the following verbs:

a) to control, to transport, to service, to share, to work, to force, to rise, to head, to power, to base, to state, to centre, to demand, to mix;

b) to assossiate, to govern, to produce, to manufacture, to predominate, to account, to equip, to employ, to develop, to nationalize, to know.

III. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. British economy was primarily based ... private enterprises.
2. Some ... industries were nationalized ... World War II. 3. Part ... public transport, power industry and most ... civil aviation are managed ... the state. 4. The rise ... Britain as an industrial nation was partly due ... the presence ... considerable mineral resources. 5. Manufacturing plays a vital role ... British economy. 6. The new industries have developed hand ... hand ... science and technology.

IV. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms

from the list:

GNP; woolen industry; manufacturing; agriculture; private enterprises; industrial power; public-enterprise economy.

1. Great Britain is a highly-developed naval and __________ . 2. British economy was primarily based on _______ . 3. Great Britain has a mixed private and ________ . 4. The main sectors of British economy are _______ , services and ________ . 5. The share of industry in _______ is 11 times more than that of agriculture. 6. The main centres of cotton and ________ are Leeds, Bradford and Manchester.

V. Ask someone

if Great Britain is a highly developed naval and industrial power; its economy was primarily based on private enterprises; now Great Britan has a mixed private- and public-enterprise economy; in the course of the last hundred years many of Britain's most valuable and accessible deposits have been worked out;

when some industries were nationalized;

what industries the government controls; the main sectors of British economy are; the share of industry in GNP is; role manufacturing plays in British economy; the rise of Britain as an industrial country was due to; the chief minerals found on the British Isles are; the older branches of industry are; the new industries are; cities and towns have enterprises of nearly all branches of industry; the main centres of cotton and woolen industry are.

VI. Translate into English:

1. Великобританiя є дуже розвинутою морською iндустрiальною державою. 2. Вона має змiшану економiку, що ґрунтується на приватному та державному пiдприємництві. 3. Держава контролює вугледобувну та електроенергетичну галузі, чорну металургiю та суднобудування. 4. Промисловiсть, послуги та сiльське господарство є головними секторами британської економiки. 5. Розквіт Великобританiї як iндустрiальної держави зумовлювався наявнiстю значної кiлькостi мiнеральних ресурсiв. 6. Вугледобувна, металургiйна, текстильна та суднобудiвна — це найстарiші галузі промисловостi. 7. Новими галузями промисловостi є хiмiчна, електротехнiчна, автомобiльна та авiаракетна. 8. Лондон, Глазго, Манчестер, Лiверпуль, Шеффiлд та Бiрмiнгем є основними промисловими центрами Великобританiї.

VII. Give the characteristic of British economy using

the following words and word-combinations:

highly-developed naval and industrial power; mixed private- and public-enterprise economy; coal-mining and electric power industries; ship-building; ferrous metallurgy; private enterprise; public transport; civil aviation; national bank; manufacturing; services; agriculture; vital role; to account for; workforce; GNP; due to; considerable mineral resources; new industries; electrotechnical, automobile, aeromissile industries; hand-in-hand; science and technology; to meet present technical demands.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

service, income, product, health, retail, wholesale, implement, monetary, policy, tourism, supervise, purchase, partner, textile, business, export, banking, loan, mortgage, leasing, output, lending, futures, Commonwealth, aircraft;

b) stress the second syllable:

increasing, increasingly, particularly, commodity, proportion, domestic, finance, financial, commercial, insurance, responsible, community, machinery, include, accept, comprise, society, facility, deposit, arrange;

c) stress the third syllable:

education, international, democratic.

Text B

Services play an important role in British economy and make up 1 an increasing proportion of the national income 2. They account for about 60 per cent of gross domestic product and 68 per cent of employees. This sector includes health, education, retail and wholesale trade 3, tourism, financial and business services, insurance 4, transport, etc.

Banking, finance, insurance, business services and leasing account for 14 per cent of the British economy's total output. London has the world's largest insurance market, and its banks are responsible for 5 about a fifth of the international bank lending. London is the world's principal trading centre for commodities, as well as an increasingly important centre for financial futures markets.

Britain's banking system comprises the Bank of England, the commercial banks, branches of foreign and Commonwealth banks 6 and building societies 7. The Bank of England acts as the government's bank. It helps to implement the government's financial and monetary policy and supervises the banking system as a whole. Commercial banks provide financial services to individuals and companies, particularly account and loan facilities. Building societies accept deposits 8 and arrange mortgages 9 for house purchase. They also offer home loans and a wide range of banking and insurance services.

Britain has an open economy, in which international trade plays a vital role. About one-quarter of its gross domestic product comes from the export of goods and services. It is the fifth largest trading nation in the world. Since 1973 Britain has been a member of the European Economic Community, an association of 12 democratic states. About half Britain's trade is with its European Community partners. Britain's main exports are automobiles, textile, machinery, aircraft, electronic equipment and many others.

COMMENTS

1. to make up — складати

2. national income — нацiональний дохід

3. retail and wholesale trade — роздрiбна та оптова торгiвля

4. insurance — страхування

5. to be responsible for — вiдповiдати за, бути вiдповiдальним за

6. Commonwealth banks — банки Спiвдружностi

7. building societies — житлово-будiвельнi товариства

8. to accept deposites — приймати вклади

9. mortgage — застава

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Name the word-building elements (suffixes, prefixes) and

the part of speech of each word:

nation — national — nationally — nationalism — nationalist —nationalistic — nationality — nationalize — nationalization — international — internationalism — internationalist — internationalize; produce — producer — producible — product — production — productive — productively — productivity — unproductive; insurance — insurant — insure — insurer — uninsured; bank — banker — bankable — banking — bankrupt — bankruptcy.
II. Give the English equivalents for:

важлива роль; внутрiшнiй валовий продукт; охорона здоров'я; освiта; нацiональний дохід; роздрiбна та оптова торгiвля; послуги у сферi фiнансiв та бiзнесу; бути вiдповiдальним за щось; мiжнародний банкiвський кредит; страхування; ф'ючерсний ринок; банкiвська система; банки Спiвдружностi; Європейське Економiчне Співтовариство; мiжнародна торгiвля; комерцiйнi банки; експорт товарiв та послуг; житлово-будiвельнi товариства; машинне устаткування; приймати вклади; текстильнi вироби; електронна апаратура.


  1. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Services play an important role ... British economy and make up an increasing proportion ... the national income. 2. They account ... about 60 per cent ... gross domestic product. 3. London is the world's principal trading centre ... commodities, as well as an increasingly important centre ... financial futures markets. 4. Commercial banks provide financial services ... individuals and companies. 5. Building societies accept deposits and arrange mortgages ... house purchase. 6. About one-quarter ... its gross domestic product comes ... the export ... goods and services. 7. Great Britain is the fifth largest trading nation ... the world. 8. ... 1973 it has been a member ... the European Economic Community.


  1. Complete the following sentences:

1. Services account for ... . 2. This sector includes ... . 3. Banking, finance, insurance, business services and leasing account for ... . 4. London has the world's largest insurance market, and its banks are responsible for .... 5. Commercial banks provide ... . 6. Britain's banking system comprises ... . 7. Since 1973 Britain has been ... . 8. Britain's main exports are ... .

V. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A

Column B

1. service

a. The activity of selling goods and services in order to make a profit.

2. national income

b. A financial institution that accepts demand deposits and makes commercial loans.

3. gross domestic product

c. An economy in which a significant percentage of its goods and services are traded internationally.

4. trade

d. The total annual money value of the goods and services produced by a country.

5. bank

e. A financial institution that accepts deposits and arrange mortgages for house purchase.

6. building society

f. The monetary value of all the goods and services produced by an economy over a specified period.

7. open economy

g. Intangible commodity.

8. exports

h. Goods and services sold to foreign countries.

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the role of services in British economy? 2. What services does this sector include? 3. What does Britain's banking system comprise? 4.What do you know about the Bank of England? 5. What kind of services do commercial banks provide? 6. What do building societies offer to their customers? 7. What can you say about international trade of Great Britain? 8. What are the main Britain's exports?

VII. Translate into English:

1. Послуги вiдiграють важливу роль в економiцi Великобританiї i становлять бiльшу частину нацiонального доходу. 2. Цей сектор включає послуги у сферi охорони здоров'я, освiти, роздрiбної та оптової торгiвлi, туризму, фiнансiв та бiзнесу, страхування, транспорту та iн.
3. Послуги у сферi банкiвської справи, фiнансiв, страхування, бiзнесу та лiзингу становлять 14% загального обсягу виробництва. 4. Банкiвська система Великобританiї включає Банк Англiї, вiддiли зарубiжних банкiв та Спiвдружностi й житлово-будiвельнi товариства. 5. Банк Англiї дiє як урядовий банк. Вiн допомагає здiйснювати фiнансову та грошову полiтику уряду i здiйснює нагляд за дiяльнiстю банкiвської системи в цiлому. 6. Мiжнародна торгiвля вiдiграє суттєву роль в економiцi Великобританiї. 7. З 1973 року Великобританія є членом Європейського Економiчного Співтовариства. 8. Великобританiя експортує автомобiлi, текстильнi вироби, машинне устаткування, лiтаки, електронну апаратуру та iн.

READING DRILLS
1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

industry, area, current, structure, occupy, heavy, steel, coal, part, service, health, care, concentrate, region, mineral, output, presently, bias, yield, mining, ferrous, automobile, locomotive, railway, airplane, harvester, integrate, process, light, lack, standard, innovate;

b) stress the second syllable:

considerable, deposit, industrial, towards, equipment, employ, produce, metallurgy, account, accept, however, unable, consumer, process, progressive, material, unwillingness, techniques, approach, initiative;

c) stress the third syllable:

education, metallurgical, technological.
Text C

Agriculture is one of the most important sectors in British economy. It supplies nearly 2/3 of the country's food and directly employs about 2.5 per cent of the working population. However its share 1 of the gross domestic product 2 is less than 3 per cent — the lowest figure among the developed countries.

Great Britain is self-sufficient 3 in milk, eggs, to a very great extent 4 in meat, potatoes and wheat. However it has to import butter, cheese, sugar, tea, fruit and some other agricultural products.

There are more than 250 thousand farms in Great Britan. Most of them are small family farms, where all the work is done by the farmer and his family. The tendency in agricultural development of the country is the disappearance 5 of small traditional farms as they cannot compete 6 with big industrial farms.

The types of farms are different in different regions of the country. In the East most farmers grow such crops as barley, wheat, sugar beets and potatoes. In the West climate is good for the production of farm animals. The greater part of the land here is used for dairy and beef cattle breeding, and sheep farming. There are a lot of farms where farmers grow some crops and breed some farm animals. These farms are known as mixed farms.

British agriculture is efficient for it is based on modern technology and research. The work in agricultural sector is highly mechanized. Computers and different agricultural machines are used by the farmers in Great Britain.

COMMENTS

1. share — частка

2. gross domestic product — внутрішній валовий продукт

3. ... is self-sufficient — сама себе забезпечує; незалежна; економiчно
самостiйна

4. to a great extent — значною мiрою

5. disappearance — зникнення

6. to compete — конкурувати

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Give the verbs from which the following nouns are derived:

computer, disappearance, difference, growth, development, management, employment, population, product, production, tendency, import, competition.

II. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and

word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:

one of the most important sectors; developed countries; small family farms; agricultural products; to be self-sufficient; to compete; share of the gross domestic product; to a very great extent; agricultural development; agricultural sector; farm animals; dairy and beef cattle breeding; highly mechanized; sheep farming; disappearance; mixed farms; modern technology and research.

III. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms

from the list:

mixed farms; computers; self-sufficient; modern technology; sectors; the disappearance; farm animals; crops; efficient; compete.

1. Agriculture is one of the most important _______ in British economy. 2. Great Britain is _________ in milk, eggs, meat, potatoes and wheat. 3. In the West climate is good for the production of _________ . 4. There are a lot of farms where farmers grow some ________ and breed some farm animals. These farms are known as ___________ . 5. British agriculture is _________ for it is based on ________ and research. 6. Different machines and ________ are used by the farmers. 7. The tendency in agricultural development of the country is ________ of small traditional farms as they cannot _______ with big industrial farms.

IV. Match the synonyms:

self-sufficient, share, agriculture, self-supporting, trend, production, for, to provide, significant, because, part, farming, tendency, producing, developed, about, efficient, to supply, important, advanced, nearly, effective.

V. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Agriculture is one ... the most important sectors ... British economy. 2. Its share ... the gross domestic product is less than 3 per cent — the lowest figure ... the developed countries. 3. Great Britain is self-sufficient ... milk, eggs, to a very great extent ... meat, potatoes and wheat. 4. Most ... the farms are small family farms, where all ... the work is done ... the farmer and his family. 5. The tendency ... agricultural development ... the country is the disappearance ... small traditional farms as they cannot compete ... big industrial farms. 6. The types ... farms are different ... different regions ... the country. 7. ... the West climate is good ... the production ... farm animals. 8. British agriculture is efficient ... it is based ... modern technology and research.

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. Is agriculture one of the most important sectors in British economy? 2. What is the share of the gross domestic product? 3. What agricultural products is Great Britain self-sufficient in? 4. What products does the country import? 5. How many farms are there in Great Britain? 6. What is the tendency in agricultural development of the country? 7. The types of farms are different in different regions of Great Britain, aren't they? 8. What three types of farms are there in the country? 9. Why is the British agriculture is efficient?

VII. Translate into English:

1. Ciльське господарство — один з найважливiших секторів економіки Великобританiї. 2. Країна сама себе забезпечує молоком, яйцями і значною мiрою м'ясом, картоплею та пшеницею. 3. Великобританiя iмпортує масло, сир, цукор, чай, фрукти та iншi сiльськогосподарськi продукти. 4. Фермерськi господарства рiзнi в рiзних регiонах. 5. На сходi країни фермери вирощують такi культури, як ячмiнь, пшениця, цукровий буряк та картопля. 6. На заходi клiмат сприятливий для розвитку тваринництва. 7. Сiльське господарство Великобританiї є ефективним, оскiльки воно ґрунтується на сучасних технологiях та дослiдженнях.

COMMUNICATIVE SITUATIONS

1. You have an exam. Your question is: «Great Britain as an industrial country»

2. You are at the conference. The theme of your report is: «The role of services in British economy»

3. Your English friend tells you about Great Britain as one of the largest trading nations in the world.

4. You have just come from Great Britain. Make a report in your class: «Agriculture — one of the most important sectors in British economy»

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Participle I

I. Remember the spelling of ing-forms:

a) si t — si tt ing

ru n — ru nn ing

beg in — begi nn ing

b) listen — listen ing

speak — speak ing

read — read ing

c) l ie — l y ing

t ie — t y ing

d ie — d y ing

d) writ e — writ ing

com e — com ing

giv e — giv ing

e) see — see ing

do — do ing

fly — fly ing




II. Form Participle I of the following verbs:

to develop, to control, to manage, to manufacture, to play, to rise, to get, to be, to build, to produce, to have, to account, to include, to govern, to provide, to go, to accept, to offer, to come, to trade, to work, to grow, to buy.

III. Translate into Ukrainian:

a smiling girl; a writing boy; a laughing baby; playing children;
a falling tree; a sleeping man; the people waiting for you; a walking couple; a developing country; an increasing proportion; reading audience; a trading nation.

IV. State the functions of Participle I:

1. The dean of our faculty is speaking to the students. 2. He is coming in two days. 3. I came up to the students discussing their time-table.
4. Applying fertilizers, farmers increase crop yields. 5. Farmers applying fertilizers obtain high yields of farm crops. 6. Do you know the man speaking to the students? 7. They are discussing an important problem now. 8. Ukraine is developing its economic contacts.

V. Open the brackets, using the Participle I. Retell the passage:

G reat Britain is situated on the British Isles, ( to cover) an area of 244,000 sq km. It comprises the island of Great Britain, ( to consist) of England and ( to occupy) most of the southern two-thirds of the island; Scotland, ( to occupy) the northern one-third of the island; and Wales, ( to lie) to the west of England — and Northern Ireland, also known as Ulster, ( to lie) in the northeastern part of the island of Ireland.

The capital of G reat Britain is London. It is a great industrial city, an international center of finance, the world's third largest city, ( to rank) after Tokyo and New York City.

The land area of the United Kingdom is about evenly divided between lowlands and uplands with some 5 per cent ( to consist) of highlands. England has three hill regions in the north, west, and southwest and two lowland regions in the southeast and east. The countryside, ( to connect) these five regions, is composed mainly of rich agricultural plains.

The climate of the United Kingdom is temperate, ( to be) warmed by the North Atlantic Current and by southwest winds.

The Present Continuous Tense

VI. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

Pattern: The students are writing a test.

Are the students writing a test?

The students aren't /are not/ writing a test.

1. The teacher is explaining a grammar rule. 2. He is always leaving his dirty dishes on the table. 3. The boys are skating. 4. I am waiting for them. 5. It is raining heavily. 6. The students are discussing a serious problem. 7. We are writing a dictation now. 8. She is doing her shopping. 9. My friend is smoking now. 10. Tom and Jane are hurrying along the street. 11. He is teaching his boy to ride. 12. The secretary is speaking over the telephone.

VII. Give short and full answers:

1. Are you having a seminar? 2. Is he speaking to the dean? 3. Are you preparing for your examinations? 4. Are you consulting the dictionary? 5. Are they working at this problem now? 6. Is Ann wearing her new dress? 7. Are you telling the truth? 8. Is your father always losing his car keys? 9. Is he talking to a friend of his? 10. Are you feeling well today? 11. Is Petrenko coming tonight? 12. Am I answering your questions well? 13. Is it snowing heavily? 14. Is your father looking through the morning newspapers?

VIII. Do as you are told and say what you are doing:

Pattern: Go to the door. — I am going to the door.

1. Go to the blackboard. 2. Write a sentence on the blackboard.
3. Clean the blackboard. 4. Hold the duster in your left hand. 5. Take your seat. 6. Open your text-books at page 42. 7. Read and translate the text A.
8. Find the verbs in the Present Continuous Tense. 9. Close your text-books. 10. Retell the text.

  1. Answer the following questions:

1. What are you doing now? 2. Why aren't you writing? 3. How are you feeling? 4. What are you thinking about? 5. Who is waiting for you?
6. Where is your friend waiting for you? 7. What is your friend wearing?
8. Who is making that noise? 9. Where are you going on holiday this year? 10. Is the sun shining? 11. Why are you learning English? 12. Are you doing anything this evening? 13. What are you reading now?

X. Use the Present Continuous Tense as in the pattern:

Pattern: I (work/rest) — I am working. I am not resting.

1. We (take English/teach English). 2. My mother (do housework/watch TV). 3. The students (go to college/come back from college). 4. The boy (play in the street/sleep). 5. You (ask a question/answer my question). 6. He (read a book/write a test).

XI. Explain the use of the Present Continuous Tense:

1. Don't make any noise, the children are sleeping. 2. The students are taking their examinations on Friday. 3. He is writing a new play. 4. She is leaving the city in two days. 5. The delegation is arriving tomorrow. 6. I am going abroad in July. 7. The telephone is ringing. 8. She is always ringing up and asking questions.

XII. Complete the Disjunctive Questions:

1. We are having an English lesson now, ...? 2. The teacher is explaining the rule to the students, ... ? 3. The students are translating an English article, ... ? 4. They are not consulting the dictionary, ... ? 5. I am not making notes, ...? 6. Father is having lunch now, ... ? 7. The sun is shining, ... ? 8. She is listening to the news, ... ? 9. The birds are singing, ... ? 10. My parents are packing their things now, ... ?

XIII. Put questions to the italicized words:

1. The girl is trying on a dress. 2. The boy is running fast. 3. George is leaving for France tomorrow. 4. He is giving a lecture tonight. 5. The teacher is explaining a grammar rule. 6. Victor is answering the professor's question. 7 . The students are discussing an interesing problem. 8. My sister is looking for a book to read.

XIV. Replace the Infinitives in brackets by the Present Continuous:

1. She ( not to work), she ( to swim) in the river. 2. Someone ( to knock) at the door. Shall I answer it? — I ( to come) in a minute. I just ( to wash) my hands. 3. It is a lovely day. The sun ( to shine) and the birds ( to sing). 4. You can't see Tom now: he ( to have) a bath. 5. She always ( to lose) her glasses and ( to ask) me to look for them. 6. We ( to have) breakfast at 8.00 tomorrow as Tom ( to catch) an early train. 7. I ( to wear) my sunglasses today because the sun is very strong. 8. The last train ( to leave) the station at 11.30.

XV. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. They are working at this problem now. 2. It's getting late. It's time to go home. 3. I am not playing football this season. I am taking five courses this semester. I want to concentrate on my studies. 4. He is always leaving his dirty dishes on the table. 5. She is in her room. She is looking through the morning newspapers. 6. Let's go out now. It isn't raining any more. 7. The population of the world is rising very fast. 8. He is going to the dentist on Tuesday morning.

XVI. Use the Present Continuous or Present Indefinite:

1. Who ( to knock) at the door? 2. l ook! Victor ( to dance) with Helen. He ( to dance) all modern dances very well. 3. I won't go out now as it ( to rain) and I ( not to have) an umbrella. 4. The children are in the forest now. They ( to gather) mushrooms. They always ( to gather) mushrooms in summer. 5. Turn off the gas. The water ( to boil). Water ( to boil) at 100° C.
6. He usually ( to speak) so quickly that I ( not to understand) him. 7. Why you ( to walk) so fast today? You usually ( to walk) quite slowly. — I ( to hurry) because I ( to meet) my mother at 5 o'clock and she ( not to like) to be kept waiting. 8. You ( to see) my car keys anywhere? — No, I ( to look) for them but I ( not to see) them. 9. You ( to hear) the wind? It ( to blow) very strongly tonight. 10. You ( to recognize) that man? — I ( to think) that I have seen him before but I ( not to remember) his name. 11. I can't hear what you ( to say); the traffic ( to make) too much noise. 12. Mother ( to rest) now. She always ( to rest) after lunch.

XVII. Translate into English:

1. Що роблять студенти? — Вони готуються до семінару. Вони завжди готуються до семінару в читальному залi. 2. Де Петро зараз? -— Вiн в аудиторiї. — Що вiн там робить? — Вiн читає англiйську книжку. Вiн дуже любить читати. Вiн завжди читає англiйськi книжки. Вiн збирається стати перекладачем. 3. Не галасуйте і не заходьте до тiєї аудиторiї. Там студенти складають іспит з математики. Студенти складають іспити два рази на рiк. 4. Не виходьте на двір. Зараз іде дощ. Восени в Києвi часто дощить. 5. Що ви збираєтеся робити? — Я збираюся пояснити вам це правило. Я завжди пояснюю новi правила.
6. Коли ми вирушаємо? — Ми вирушаємо завтра вранцi. 7. Мій брат ніколи не заважає мені, коли я працюю. 8. Мій сусід завжди позичає в мене гроші й ніколи не повертає. 9. Ви розумієте, що каже лектор? — Звичайно. Він говорить швидко, але я його розумію.

The Construction « to be going to»

XVIII. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

Pattern: She is going to take a taxi.

Is she going to take a taxi?

She isn't /is not/ going to take a taxi.

1. He is going to the dentist on Tuesday morning. 2. I'm going to travel to Scotland on Monday. 3. I'm going to stay at home tonight. 4. You are going to miss your train. 5. They are going to quit smoking. 6. Look at those clouds. It's going to rain. 7. She is going to have a bath. 8. He is going to learn Spanish. 9. We are going to the auction tomorrow. 10. He is going to buy a car.

XIX. Put the verbs in brackets into the « to be going to » form:

1. She ( have) a bath. 2. The cat ( have) kittens. 3. You ( ask) him to help you? 4. When you ( pay) the bill? 5. You ( reserve) a sit? 6. What you ( do) with the money? 7. You ( buy) meat? No, ( not eat) meat any more.
I ( eat) vegetables. 8. I ( not stay) here another minute. 9. We ( stop) here for a moment to get some petrol. 10. I haven't bought any cigarettes because
I ( give up) smoking. 11. You ( walk) there in this rain? You'll get awfully wet. 12. The children ( plant) an oak tree here. 13. I've lent you my car once. I ( not do) it again. 14. What you ( tell) the police? I ( tell) them the truth.
15. There was very little blossom this spring. Apples ( be) scarce.

XX. Complete the sentences by using « to be going to »:

1. I had lunch with Alan today, and I am going to have lunch with him tomorrow too. 2. John wasn't in class today, and _______ tomorrow either. 3. It isn't raining today, and according to the weather report, __________ tomorrow either. 4. We are in class today, and ________ in class tomorrow too. 5. I didn't get married last year, and _______ married this year either. 6. Peter didn't wear a clean shirt today, and _________ a clean one tomorrow either.

The Functions of the Verb « to be »

XXI. State the functions of the verb « to be »:

1. Our aim is to study well to become qualified specialists. 2. My sister is an experienced teacher. 3. Are you going home now? 4. I'm not often invited to parties. 5. The students are in the classroom. 6. They are to begin this work at once. 7. My friend is to come at six. 8. Someone is knocking at the door. 9. I am taking five courses this semester. 10. The lecture is very interesting.

XXII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. He is the best student in our group. 2. I am to take my exams in June. 3. The students are at the lecture now. 4. She is to make a report. 5. They are to meet at the station. 6. It is freezing. 7. She is in Kyiv now. 8. The fog is getting thicker. 9. The train is to come at five. 10. My parents are not in town in summer. 11. He says that we are to wait till he comes. 12. Are you frightened?

XXIII. Translate into English:

1. Її немає тут зараз, вона вдома. Вона дуже зайнята сьогодні. Вона має зустрітися зі своїми друзями о 8 годині вечора. 2. Що ви тут робите? Ви чекаєте на когось? — Так. Я чекаю на свого друга. Я рідко бачу його, оскільки він дуже зайнятий. У нього сесія в червні й він повинен готуватися до іспитів. 3. Хто твої батьки? — Мій батько — менеджер у комерційному банку, а мати — лікар у дитячій поліклініці. Вони дуже добрі спеціалісти. — Скільки років твоїм батькам? — Батькові — 45, а матері — 43. — Де твої батьки зараз? — Вони зараз перебувають за кордоном. 4. Звідки ви? — Я з Фастова. — Де це? — Це недалеко від Києва. 5. Ми завжди раді бачити вас тут. 6. Вона сьогодні в капелюшку, бо дуже спекотно. 7. Моя мати зараз на кухні. Вона пече яблучний пиріг. 8. Ніхто не повинен залишати будинок без дозволу поліції.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Replace the Infinitives in brackets by the Present Continuous:

1. I ( to take) special courses in English. 2. The kettle ( to boil) now. Shall I make the tea? 3. Why you ( to make) a cake? Someone ( to come) to tea? 4. It ( to rain)? — Yes, it ( to rain) very hard. You can't go out yet. 5. Who
( to wait) for you downstairs? 6. What Tom ( to do) now? He ( to clean) his shoes.

II. Change the following sentences using « to be going to» :

1. She will take a taxi. 2. We'll learn Spanish next year. 3. I will spend the summer holidays in the country. 4. I will read you his answer to my letter of complaint. 5. They will build a new school here. 6. When will you pay the bill? 7. The inspector will ask you a few questions. 8. Will you ask him to help you?

III. Use the Present Continuous or Present Indefinite:

1. Don't make much noise, I ( to prepare) for my report. 2. The first-year students ( to go) to the phonetic study on Fridays. 3. It ( to take) him half an hour to get to the University. 4. The delegation ( to arrive) tomorrow. 5.We are busy now. We ( to discuss) an important problem. 6. What you ( to do) here? — I ( to wait) for a friend of mine. 7. He usually ( drink) coffee but today he ( drink) tea. 8. It often ( to rain) in England. 9. The country ( to import) butter, cheese, sugar and some agricultural products. 10. Let's go for a walk, it not ( to rain). 11. Why you ( to type) so fast? You ( to make) a lot of mistakes. 12. He never ( to listen) to what you say. He always ( to think) about something else. 13. The winter session ( to begin) in January. 14. My sister ( to be) not here, she ( to work) in the library.

IV. Translate into English:

1. Я не можу вам дати зараз цю газету, тому що я її читаю.
2. Чому Катя не виконує домашнє завдання? — Вона читає. — Що вона читає? — Вона читає «Давіда Копперфілда» Діккенса. — Вона багато читає? — Так. 3. Чому ми не можемо побалакати з ним зараз? — Він дуже зайнятий зараз. Він пише листа своїм батькам. — Він часто пише листи батькам? — Так. Він пише листи щонеділі. 4. Не галасуйте. Він розмовляє по телефону. 5. Дощ іде? — Так. Візьми парасольку. Тут часто йде дощ. 6. Зателефонуйте йому негайно. Я гадаю, що він іще не спить. 7. Де мій журнал? — Він лежить на письмовому столі. 8. Ви розумієте, що каже лектор? — Звичайно. Він завжди говорить швидко, але я його розумію. 9. Чоловік, що розмовляє зі студентами, наш декан. 10. Послухайте! Ганна співає в сусідній кімнаті. Вона співає дуже гарно.



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