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UNIT 2


TOPIC: ECONOMY of UKRAINE

TEXT A

TEXT B

TEXT C

TEXT D

GRAMMAR: The Present Indefinite Tense

The Pronoun: Personal and Possessive

Word Order in the Simple Declarative Sentence


READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

nation, wide, territory, country, former, chemical, agriculture, function, decade, aggregate, national, system, link, management, product, cycle, clearly, border, gross, monetary, credit, break, crisis, index, negative, rate, sign, branch, reason, price, power, carrier, government, stimulus;

b) stress the second syllable:

declare, formation, inflation, confirm, industrial, potential, traditional, financial, political, domestic, republic, dynamic, metallurgy, machine-building, production, productive, economy, co-operate, technology, inherit, dependence, suffice, emergence, development, appear, reform, reorganize, restore, effective;

c) stress the third syllable:

independent, referendum, economic, predetermine, realization;

d) stress the fourth syllable:

stabilization, privatization.

2. Read the following words. Mind the difference in pronunciation.

Translate the words:

a) produce — to produce; transport — to transport; object — to object; process — to process; decrease — to decrease; increase — to increase; progress — to progress; record — to record; import — to import; export — to export;

b) formation — to form; graduate — to graduate; finance — to finance; unity — to unite; tax — taxation — to tax; privatization — to privatize.

Text A

On August 24, 1991 the Verkhovna Rada declared the formation of the Independent Ukrainian State and on December 1991, a nation-wide referendum confirmed the formation of a new large European state.

As to its territory Ukraine is the second largest country in Europe. As to its industrial potential, this is one of the most developed republics of the former Soviet Union with highly developed metallurgy, machine-building, chemical production and agriculture.

The economy of the Soviet Union was functioning for decades as an aggregate national economic system linked by united management, co- operated links 1 and applied technologies. This has predetermined the inherited dependence 2 of Ukraine on economic ties with former republics of the former Soviet Union. It will suffice to point out that 2/3 of the country's gross domestic product 3 did not have a closed productive cycle 4 in Ukraine.

Clearly the emergence 5 of political and economic borders in a formerly united economy, the emergence of the national monetary-credit and financial systems 6, breaking of the system of traditional economic links have brought the economy of the country to a crisis. Almost all the indices of the economic development have negative dynamics. But the rates of decrease of production are slown down 7 and first signs of stabilization appear in a number of branches of economy.

One of the main reasons of inflation are prices for power carriers 8 imported from Russia. These prices have increased by hundreds times during the last years. The government of Ukraine sees the way out of the crisis in realization of the programme of economic reforms which would make it possible to reorganize the economy, to change its structure, to carry out 9 privatization and to restore stimuli to a highly effective work.
COMMENTS
1. co-operated links — cпiльнi зв'язки

2. inherited dependence — успадкована залежнiсть

3. gross domestic product — внутрiшнiй валовий продукт

4. closed productive cycle — замкнутий виробничий цикл

5. emergence — поява

6. national monetary-credit and financial systems — нацiональна грошово-кредитна та фiнансова системи

7. rates of decrease of production are slown down — темпи зниження виробництва уповiльнюються

8. power carriers — енергоносiї

9. to carry out — проводити
VOCABULARY EXERCISES

  1. Find equivalents:




1. nation-wide referendum

2. industrial potential

3. united management

4. monetary-credit system

5. inherited dependence

6. machine-building

7. gross domestic product

8. closed productive cycle

9. traditional economic links

10. economic development

11. power carriers

12. way out of the crisis

  1. programme of economic reforms

14. to restore stimuli

а. енергоносiї

б. економiчний розвиток

в. програма економічних реформ

г. внутрiшнiй валовий продукт

д. всенародний референдум

е. промисловий потенцiал

є. вихiд iз кризи

ж. успадкована залежнiсть

з. спiльне управлiння

і. замкнутий виробничий цикл

і. грошово-кредитна система

ї. традицiйнi економiчнi зв'язки

й. відновити стимули

к. машинобудування


II. Give the corresponding nouns to the following verbs:

to declare, to confirm, to populate, to develop, to produce, to cooperate, to stabilize, to reorganize, to realize, to depend, to inflate, to manage, to govern, to form, to apply, to restore.


  1. Use the correct word in the sentences. Change the form

of the word if necessary:
-depend

1. The Declaration of Ukrainian _______ was proclaimed on August 24, 1991 by the Ukrainian Parliament. 2. A new _____ state appeared on the world political map. 3. His happiness _________ not on other people but on himself. 4. Financially he was completely _________ on his brother. 5. He wanted to go to work to be __________ of his parents. 6. What time will you arrive? - I don't know. It ________ on the traffic.

- develop

1. Ukraine is one of the most _________ republics of the former Soviet Union. 2. Present-day independent Ukraine has a considerable potential to quickly ________ its economy. 3. Our country has very favourable conditions for the _________ of agricultural production.

  1. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. As to its territory Ukraine is the second largest country ... Europe. 2. Ukraine is one ... the most developed republics ... the former Soviet Union ... highly developed industry and agriculture. 3. One ... the main reasons ... inflation are prices ... power carriers imported ... Russia. 4. The prices have increased ... hundreds times ... the last years. 5. The government ... Ukraine sees the way out ... the crisis ... realisation ... the programme ... economic reforms.

  1. Answer the following questions:

1. When did the Verkhovna Rada declare the formation of the Independent Ukrainian State? 2. What can you say about Ukraine's industrial potential? 3. What has predetermined the inherited dependence of Ukraine on economic ties with former republics of the Soviet Union?
4. What has brought the economy of the country to a crisis? 5. What is one of the main reason of inflation? 6. Does the government of Ukraine see the way out of the crisis?

  1. Translate into English:

1. 24 серпня 1991 року Верховна Рада України проголосила створення самостiйної держави України. 2. Щодо територiї Україна є другою за величиною країною в Європi. 3. Щодо промислового потенцiалу вона є однiєю з найбiльш розвинутих республiк колишнього Радянського Сoюзу з потужними металургiєю, машинобудуванням, хiмiчною промисловiстю та сiльським господарством. 4. Єдинодержавна економiчна система зі спiльним управлiнням та зв'язками зумовила успадковану залежнiсть України вiд інших республiк колишнього Радянського Союзу. 5. Розрив системи традицiйних економiчних зв'язкiв з цими республiками призвів економiку країни до кризи. 6. Однiєю з головних причин iнфляцiї є високi цiни на енергоносiї, що імпортуються з Росiї. 7. Уряд України бачить вихiд iз кризи в реалiзацiї програми економiчних реформ.

VII. Give the characteristic of Ukraine's economy today

using the following words and word-combinations:
to declare the formation of the Independent Ukrainian State; aggregate national economic system; nation-wide referendum; co-operated links; applied technologies; to predetermine; inherited dependence; united management; gross domestic product; closed productive cycle; emergence of political and economic borders; national monetary-credit and financial systems; traditional economic links; economic development; rates of decrease of production are slown down; power carriers; the way out of the crisis; to reorganize the economy; to carry out privatization; to restore stimuli to a highly effective work.
READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

namely, market, complicate, quickly, favourable, natural, term, structure, structural, balance, payment, gradual, solve, period, legislative, regulate, basis, cost, trade, budget, practice, change, price, energy, food, communal, service;

b) stress the second syllable:

assertion, prerequisite, accomplishment, considerable, potential, develop, explain, condition, convenient, position, exchange, reform, attainment, account, create, creation, attraction, investment, succeed, conduct, taxation, essentially;

c) stress the third syllable:

transformation, proclamation, integration, independence, international, geographical, correspond;

d) stress the fourth syllable:

interrelate, characteristic.
Text B

Two interrelated processes are characteristic of Ukraine's economy today, namely its assertion 1 as that of an independent state, and its transformation from planned-centralized to market-controlled. These processes are rather complicated, but there are all prerequisites 2 for their effective accomplishment.

Present-day independent Ukraine has a considerable potential to quickly develop its economy — and this is explained not only by the favourable natural conditions, but also by the convenient geographical position in terms of 3 international trade exchanges.

Reforms, started in the national economy after the proclamation of independence, are aimed at the establishment of an open, effective market type economy.

The main directions of the programme of economic reforms are as follows:

1. The programme of structural reorganization.

2. Attainment of balanced payments account.

3. Creation of conditions for gradual integration of Ukraine with the world economy.

These and other problems must be solved at the cost of a wide attraction of foreign investments. In a short period of time the Verkhovna Rada and government of Ukraine have succeeded in creation a legislative and regulating basis for conducting economic reforms. Taxation and budget systems 4 corresponding in their structure to the world practice are created essentially anew. The change over to a free price formation in the economy is carried out. The government regulation of price level is applied only in establishing prices for main energy carriers, some most important food, communal and transportation services.

Much attention is given to the change of the structure of property. Legislative basis is created for privatization of state-owned enterprises 5, implementation of reforms of the banking and financial systems.

COMMENTS

1. assertion — становлення

2. prerequisite — передумова

3. in terms of — з погляду

4. taxation and budget systems — податкова та бюджетна системи

5. state-owned enterprises — державнi пiдприємства

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

  1. Give the verbs from which the following nouns are derived:

assertion, proclamation, regulation, creation, direction, reorganization, attraction, implementation, formation, transportation, taxation, independence, integration, government, accomplishment, investment, development, payment.

II. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and

word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:

national economy; international trade; world economy; in a short period of time; structural reorganization; attraction of foreign investments; effective market type economy; to succeed in; banking and financial systems; to conduct economic reforms; taxation and budget systems; to establish prices; legislative and regulating basis; state-owned enterprises.

III. Match the synonyms:

suitable, energy carriers, complicated, property, present-day, complex, to fix prices, convenient, to implement, nationalized, power carriers, state-owned, declaration, sovereign, accomplishment, ownership, proclamation, to establish prices, contemporary, independent, achievement, to carry out.
IV. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms

from the list:

programme of economic reforms; prerequisites; assertion; banking and financial systems; taxation; market-controlled; independent sovereign state; privatization.

1. Ukraine is recognized by the world community as an ___________ . 2. The process of Ukraine's ______________ as an independent state is very complicated. 3. Ukraine has all ________ for the development of its economy. 4. The government of Ukraine sees the way out of the crisis in realization of the __________ . 5. Reforms are aimed at the transformation of Ukraine's economy from planned-centralized to __________ . 6. The implementation of reforms of the ____________ are of a high priority.
7. ____________ and budget systems corresponding in their structure to the world practice are created essentially anew. 8. Legislative basis is created for _________ of state-owned enterprises.

  1. Complete the following sentences:

1. Two interrelated processes are characteristic of Ukraine's economy today, namely ... . 2. Present-day independent Ukraine has ... . 3. Reforms, started in the national economy after the proclamation of independence, are aimed ... . 4. The main directions of the programme of economic reforms are as follows: ... . 5. These and other problems must be solved ... . 6. In a short period of time the Verkhovna Rada and government of Ukraine have succeeded in ... . 7. Much attention is given to ... . 8. Legislative basis is created ... .

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. What processes are characteristic of Ukraine's economy today?
2. These processes are rather complicated, aren't they? 3. What potential does Ukraine have to develop its economy? 4. What are the main directions of the programme of economic reforms? 5. What is the role of the Verkhovna Rada and government in conducting economic reforms? 6. What problems is much attention given to?

VII. Translate into English:

1. Сучасна незалежна Україна має значний потенцiал для швидкого розвитку економiки. 2. Реформи, якi розпочалися в народному господарствi пiсля проголошення незалежностi, спрямовано на створення вiдкритої ефективної економiки ринкового типу. 3. Одним із головних напрямкiв програми економiчних реформ є створення умов для поступової iнтеграцiї України у свiтове господарство. 4. Верховна Рада та уряд України досягли успiху в створеннi правової бази для проведення економiчних реформ. 5. Уряд регулює цiни на енергоносiї, комунальнi послуги, транспорт та деякi iншi товари й послуги.
6. Велика увага придiляється приватизацiї державних пiдприємств.
READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

industry, area, current, structure, occupy, heavy, steel, coal, light, job, service, health, care, concentrate, region, mineral, bias, output, yield, mining, ferrous, presently, automobile, locomotive, railway, airplane, lack, harvester, satisfy, integrate, process, standard, innovate, market;

b) stress the second syllable:

proportion, industrial, towards, account, employ, metallurgy, equipment, considerable, deposit, produce, however, accept, progressive, unable, consumer, unwillingness, initiative, techniques, approach.

2. Name the word-building elements (suffixes, prefixes) and

the part of speech of each word:

economy — economic — economical — economically — economics — economist — economize; industry — industrial — industrialist — industrially — industrious — industrialization; satisfy — satisfactory — satisfaction.

Text C

Industry is the most important area of Ukraine's economy. In the current structure of Ukraine's industry a great proportion is occupied by heavy industry, especially the steel, machine-building and coal industries.
A considerable part is played by the food and light industries. About two-fifth of Ukraine's people work in industry, and about a fifth work in agriculture. Most other Ukrainians have jobs in such service industries as education and health care.

Many of Ukraine's heavy industries are concentrated in the Donbas region, the centre of Ukraine's heavy industry. It has rich mineral deposits and major industrial base with bias towards 1 heavy industry. A large industrial output 2 is yielded 3 by the mining, ferrous metallurgy 4, chemical and machine-building industries.

The machine-building is presently the largest branch of industry. It accounts for a third of the national industrial output and employs about a fourth of Ukraine's workers. Automobiles and buses, locomotives and railway cars, airplanes and ships, tractors and harvesters 5, machine tools 6 and metallurgical equipment are produced at Ukraine's plants and factories.

However, today's industries are unable to satisfy the consumers' wants 7. The reason is that they are not integrated into the world process of economic, technological and scientific progress. The national industries have low standard in processing raw materials 8, outdated and worn-out production equipment 9, unwillingness to accept progressive techniques and approaches and lack of innovating initiative. These and other problems must be solved in the course of new economic reforms aimed at creating a market economy.

COMMENTS

1. with bias towardsтут : на користь

2. output — випуск; продукцiя

3. ... is yielded ... — виробляється

4. ferrous metallurgy — чорна металургiя

5. harvester — збиральна машина; комбайн

6. machine tools — верстати

7. to satisfy the consumers' wants — задовольняти бажання споживачiв

8. raw material — сировина

9. outdated and worn-out production equipment — застарiле та

зношене устаткування

VOCABULARY EXERCISES


  1. Find equivalents:

1. heavy industry

2. ferrous metallurgy

3. enterprise

4. with bias towards

5. outdated equipment

6. raw materials

7. light industry

8. machine-building industry

9. coal industry

10. to satisfy the consumers' wants и. сировина

  1. branch of industry

12. industrial output

а. легка промисловiсть

б. на користь

в. промислова продукцiя

г. вугiльна промисловiсть

д. важка промисловiсть

е. машинобудiвна промисловiсть

є. галузь промисловостi

ж. пiдприємство

з. чорна металургiя

і. сировина

і. застарiле устаткування

ї. задовольняти бажання споживачiв


II. Substitute the words in bold type by their synonyms:

1. Industry is the most significant area of Ukraine's economy. 2. In the current structure of Ukraine's industry a great part is occupied by heavy industry. 3. Nearly two-fifth of Ukraine's people work in industry. 4. Many of Ukraine's heavy industries are centred in the Donbas region. 5. It has rich mineral deposits and major industrial base in favour of heavy industry. 6. Today’s industries cannot meet the consumers' wants. 7. A large industrial output is produced by machine-building industry.
III. Complete the following sentences:

1. In the current structure of Ukraine's industry a great proportion is occupied ... . 2. A considerable part is played ... . 3. The machine-building industry accounts ... . 4. Ukraine's plants and factories produce ... . 5. Today's industries are unable ... .
IV. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are

false say why:

1. Ukraine has a developed economy with strong industry.

2. Machine-building is presently the largest branch of industry.

3. Ukraine is very rich in mineral resources.

4. The Donbas is one of the main food suppliers for the country.

5. Today's industries are able to satisfy the consumers' wants.

V. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B

1. industry

a. That which is produced or manufactured, usually in a specified period of time.

2. consumer

b. The application of science to commerce and

industry.

3. service industries

c. Anything legally owned or possessed by a person or organization.

4. technology

d. The sector of an economy that is concerned with manufacture.

5. output

e. Businesses which provide services, such as health care, legal advice or appliance repair.

6. market economy

f. An economic system in which national economic decisions are the result of decisions by individual buyers and sellers in the marketplace.

7. property

g. Anyone who uses goods and/or services.

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. Is industry the most important area in Ukraine's economy? 2. What are the main industries in Ukraine? 3. Where are many of Ukraine's heavy industries concentrated? 4. What is the Donbas rich in? 5. What industries is a large industrial output yielded by? 6. The machine-building is presently the largest branch of industry, isn't it? 7. What do Ukraine's plants and factories produce? 8. What is the reason that today's industries are unable to satisfy the consumers' wants? 9. What are new economic reforms aimed at?

VII. Translate into English:

1. Промисловiсть є найважливiшою сферою економiки України. 2. Близько 2/5 населення України працює в промисловостi. 3. Багато галузей важкої промисловостi зосереджено в Донбасi. 4. Донбас є центром важкої промисловостi в Українi. 5. Машинoбудування є зараз найбiльшою галуззю промисловостi. 6. На заводах i фабриках України виготовляють автомобiлi та автобуси, лiтаки та кораблi, трактори та комбайни, верстати та устаткування для металургiйної промисловостi. 7. Промисловiсть не може задовольнити бажання споживачiв, бо її не iнтегровано у свiтовий процес економiчного, технологiчного та науково-технiчного розвитку.

VIII. Match each branch of industry with its production:

  1. machine-building

  2. instrument-making

  3. ship-building

  4. motor vehicle

  5. farm machinery

  6. food

  7. light

  8. chemical

9. building materials

tractors

plant equipment

transport vehicles

combine harvestors

electron microscopes

passenger vehicles

sowing machines

passenger cars

canned fruit

excavators

detergents

generators

cine-cameras

vegetable oils

seagoing vessels

pharmaceuticals

footwear

turbines

wool

sugar

pottery

wine

plastics

sandstone

garment

cement

cheese

linen

butter

limestone

cotton

silk

china

fertilizers


IX. Give the characteristic of Ukraine's industry using

the following words and word-combinations:
heavy industry; steel, food and light industries; service industry; mineral deposits; machine-building and coal industries; major industrial base; with bias towards; national industrial output; ferrous metallurgy; to satisfy the consumers' wants; raw material; to yield; the world process of economic, technological and scientific progress; progressive techniques and approaches; economic reforms; outdated and worn-out production equipment; market economy.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

fertile, soil, temperately, climate, farming, breadbasket, animal, practice, crop, growing, harvesting, grain, meadow, fruit, vegetable, raising, cereal, flax, rye, oat, barley, sugar beet, sunflower, cabbage, cucumber, carrot, onion, garlic, melon, wheat, maize, legume, husbandry, widespread, dairy, province, chicken, duck, goose, turkey, cattle, poultry, mechanize, wages, profit, agriculture;

b) stress the second syllable:

productive, collective, intensive, potato, tomato, control, increase, apply, include, industrial, technology.
Text D

Ukraine has very favourable conditions for the development of agricultural production: fertile soils, temperately warm climate, a well- developed industry processing agricultural raw materials. Ukraine is one of the world's most productive farming regions and is known as the breadbasket of Europe.

There are two main branches of agricultural production in Ukraine: crop production 1 and animal husbandry 2. Crop production is the practice of growing and harvesting crops. It includes: grain and industrial crops 3, meadow culture, fruit and vegetable raising. Almost half of the cropping area is occupied by cereals 4 such as winter wheat, maize and legumes, rye, oats and barley. Among the industrial crops such as sugar beet, sunflower, flax the leading position is occupied by sugar beet. Close to 40 types of vegetable crops are grown in Ukraine: potatoes, cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, red beets, carrots, onions, garlic, etc. Melon-growing is practised mainly in the south.

Animal husbandry is the practice of breeding of farm animals and their use. The most widespread branches of animal husbandry are: dairy and beef cattle breeding 5, pig raising 6, sheep farming 7 and bee-keeping 8. The poultry industry 9 is spread through all the provinces. Birds farmed include chicken, duck, goose, turkey. There are large mechanized poultry farms to produce eggs and meat.

Most farms in Ukraine are owned and controlled by the government. They include state farms 10 and collective farms 11. State farms are managed entirely by the government, which pays wages to farmworkers. Collective farms are owned and managed in part by the workers, who receive wages as well as a share in the farm's profits. State farms are larger and have more mechanical farm equipment than collective farms. In order to increase crop yields and animal products collective and state farms apply widely intensive technologies.

COMMENTS

1. crop production — рослинництво

2. animal husbandry — тваринництво

3. grain and industrial crops — зерновi та технічні культури

4. cereals — хлiбнi злаки

5. dairy and beef cattle breeding — розведення молочної та м'ясної худоби

6. pig raising — свинарство

7. sheep farming — вiвчарство

8. bee-keeping — бджiльництво

9. poultry industry — птахiвництво

10. state farms — державні підприємства

11. collective farms — колективні підприємства

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Define the parts of speech of the following words:

favourable, production, agricultural, temperately, productive, vegetable, warm, mainly, cultivate, equipment, widely, collective, entirely, receive, almost.

II. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and

word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:

favourable conditions; agricultural production; fertile soils; agricultural raw material; crop production; animal husbandry; grain crops; industrial crops; temperately warm climate; dairy and beef cattle breeding; poultry industry; state and collective farms.

  1. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Ukraine has very favourable conditions ... the development ... agricultural production. 2. Almost half ... the cropping area is occupied ... cereals. 3. Among the industrial crops the leading position is occupied ... sugar beet. 4. Melon-growing is practised mainly ... the south. 5. The poultry industry is spread ... all the provinces. 6. Most ... farms ... Ukraine are owned and controlled ... the government.


  1. Translate the sentences paying attention to the italicized words :

1. Most of the farms in our region are animal breeding farms. 2. There are some plants that are used only in medicine. 3. Intensification of agricultural production is the most important problem now. 4. In our country there are some plants producing chemical fertilizers. 5. Our farm plants some of the crops in autumn. 6. Many people go to the country in summer. 7. That bird has a large crop. 8. Grain crops are widely grown by farmers.
9. Animal husbandry is more important on this farm than crop production.

V. Memorize the meanings of the word « agriculture» and its derivatives. Translate the sentences paying attention

to the italicized words :

agriculture — сiльське господарство; землеробство; aгрономiя;

agricultural ciльськогосподарський; землеробський;

agriculturist — агроном; сiльський трудiвник; землевласник.

1. This farm has different agricultural machines. 2. Cooperation with other countries is favourable to agriculture of Ukraine. 3. The agriculturist of today wants to have better and higher-yielding crops which can produce more food of good quality.

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1. Ukraine has very favourable conditions ... . 2. There are two main branches of agricultural production in Ukraine ... . 3. Crop production is ...
4. It includes ... . 5. Almost half of the cropping area is occupied by cereals such as ... . 6. Close to 40 types of vegetable crops are grown in Ukraine: ... . 7. Animal husbandry is ... . 8. Birds farmed include ... . 9. In order to increase crop yields and animal products collective and state farms apply ... .

  1. Answer the following questions:

1. Does Ukraine have favourable conditions for the development of agri-cultural production? 2. What are the main branches of agricultural production in Ukraine? 3. What is crop production? 4. What does crop production include? 5. What cereals occupy half of the cropping area?
6. What vegetable crops are grown in Ukraine? 7. What is animal husbandry?
8. What are the most wide-spread branches of animal husbandry? 9. Where is the poultry industry spread? 10. What birds are farmed in Ukraine?
11. What forms of farm enterprises do you know? 12. What is the difference between state and collective farms?


  1. Translate into English:

1. Україна має дуже сприятливi умови для розвитку сiльськогосподарського виробництва. 2. Є двi головнi галузi сiльськогосподарського виробництва в Українi: рослинництво та тваринництво. 3. Рослинництво — це вирощування та збирання сiльськогосподарських культур. 4. Рослинництво включає вирощування зернових та технiчних культур, лукiвництво, плодiвництво та овочiвництво. 5. Майже половину посiвної площi країни займають хлiбнi злаки. 6. Найважливiшою технiчною культурою в Українi є цукровий буряк. 7. Тваринництво — це розведення сiльськогосподарських тварин та їх використання.
8. Розведення молочної та м'ясної худоби, свинарство, вiвчарство, бджiльництво та птахiвництво — найпоширенiшi галузi тваринництва в Українi. 9. Бiльшiсть сiльськогосподарських пiдприємств в Українi контролюється урядом.
COMMUNICATIVE SITUATIONS
1. Speak about the tasks facing Ukraine's people in the building-up the economy.

2. You discuss the problems to be solved in the course of new economic reforms.

3. Make a report in your class: «Industry — the most important area in Ukraine's economy».

4. You have an exam. Your question is: «Ukraine as an industrial country».

5. You are at the conference. The theme of your report is: «The development of agricultural production in Ukraine».

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

The Present Indefinite Tense

I. Put the following sentences into the singular:

Pattern: They wish to speak to you. — He wishes to speak to you.

The students work hard. — The student works hard.

1. They help their father. 2. Buses pass my house every hour. 3. His sons go to the local school. 4. They usually catch the 8.10 bus. 5. The rivers freeze in winter. 6. They fish in the lake. 7. The children like sweets. 8. My friends study English. 9. Do they like boiled eggs? Yes, they do. 10. These figures astonish me. 11. They wash the floor every week. 12. They dress well. 13. They sometimes miss English lessons. 14. The taxes rise every year. 15. What do they do on their days off? — They do nothing. They lie in bed all day.

  1. Give short and full answers:

1. Do you remember your first teacher? 2. Do you speak English with your friends? 3. Do you always look very well? 4. Does your friend live in the hostel? 5. Does your father smoke? 6. Does it often rain here in July?
7. Don't you go shopping every day? 8. Do the students like all the subjects they study? 9. Do you often miss English lessons?

  1. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

Pattern: His parents live in Kyiv.

Do his parents live in Kyiv?

His parents don't /do not/ live in Kyiv.

Y our friend live s in the hostel .

Does your friend live in the hostel?

Your friend doesn't /does not/ live in the hostel.

1. The students make a lot of mistakes in their dictations. 2. My brother lives in Odesa. 3. My cousin wants to become a manager. 4. His parents work at a machine-building plant. 5. Our family go to the South in July.
6. We listen to the radio in the morning. 7. It often snows in November.
8. You meet him every day. 9. You know the answer. 10. They realize the danger. 11. He has breakfast at 8 o'clock. 12. She agrees with you.
IV. Use always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, rarely and never

to talk about your daily activities:

1. get up at 7 o'clock 2. do my morning exercises 3. have breakfast
4. feel terrible 5. drink coffee in the morning 6. drink more than two cups of coffee 7. come to class on time 8. come to class late 9. speak English in the classroom 10. study in the library 11. do my homework 12. go to bed early 13. go to bed after midnight 14. sleep well.
V. Ask questions about the time of the action:

1. My classes begin at a quarter past eight. 2. I usually have lunch at half-past twelve. 3. It snows in winter. 4. My parents come home late.
5. Alice works in the laboratory on Wednesdays. 6. I get up early on weekdays. 7. After classes the students study in the library. 8. Snow melts in spring.
9. He finishes work at 6 o'clock. 10. They spend their holidays in the Crimea.

VI. Ask questions about the place of the action:

1. My aunt and uncle live in Canada. 2. My parents spend their holidays in the country. 3. Many birds fly to the South in autumn. 4. He wants to go there very much. 5. The Brouns always go to the seaside in summer. 6. The sun rises in the East. 7. The teacher corrects our exercises in class. 8. She teaches English at the University. 9. He spends much time in the garden. 10. I buy my clothes at a department store.

VII. Put questions to the italicized words:

1. My friend is an economist. 2. He knows English well. 3. The students of our group usually get good marks. 4. Ann helps her mother about the house. 5. We go to the park at the weekend. 6. At the lessons we read and speak English. 7. They don't know his address. 8. My father goes to his work five days a week.

VIII. Complete the disjunctive questions:

1. You don't know French, ... ? 2. She doesn't believe you, ... ? 3. He puts the money in the bank, ... ? 4. You don't agree with Bill, ... ? 5. He never takes advice, ... ? 6. They don't want to sell the house, ... ? 7. You put sugar in tea, ... ? 8. But you don't put it in coffee, ... ? 9. The rivers freeze in winter, ... ? 10. He loves her, ... ? 11. It doesn't hurt, ... ?

IX. Explain the use of the Present Indefinite Tense:

1. She lives in Kyiv with her mother and two brothers. 2. He speaks both French and English fluently. 3. The Dnipro runs into the Black Sea.
4. He likes reading Ukrainian newspapers. 5. I don't understand this grammar rule. 6. If he comes, I shall ask him about it. 7. I always get up at 7 o'clock. 8. The steamer sails tomorrow. 9. Tom looks very well. 10. I don't recognize that man. 11. He relaxes at weekends. 12. The Earth moves round the Sun.

X. Tell your friend what you usually do

a) at the Engish lessons:

to read the texts, to ask and answer questions, to translate the sentences from Ukrainian into English, to write dictations, to learn new English words, to listen to the tape, to repeat after the speaker, to listen to the teacher, to write tests;

b) at the lectures or seminars:

to listen to the lecturer, to make notes, to ask and answer questions, to make a report, to take part in the discussion, to clear up, to write tests.

XI. Memorize the following proverbs:

1. The dogs bark, but the caravan goes on. 2. Barking dogs seldom bite. 3. All is well that ends well. 4. Health is above wealth. 5. Great ship asks deep water. 6. Tastes differ. 7. Even Homer sometimes nods. 8. A new broom sweeps clean.

XII. Translate into English:

Я студент першого курсу. Я вивчаю англiйську мову. У нас заняття з англiйської мови двічі на тиждень. Як правило, ми проводимо заняття в лiнгафонному кабiнетi. На заняттях ми дуже багато читаємо, перекладаємо тексти, виконуємо рiзнi вправи i розмовляємо англiйською мовою. Мiй друг не вивчає англiйської мови. Вiн вивчає нiмецьку. Вiн любить читати книжки нiмецьких авторiв у оригiналi й вiльно розмовляє цiєю мовою. Мiй друг нiколи не пропускає заняття. Пiсля занять вiн не йде додому. Вiн iде в бiблiотеку. Вiн працює дуже наполегливо i хоче стати юристом.
XIII. Replace the Infinitives in brackets by the Present Indefinite.

Retell the passage :

Ukraine ( to be) a sovereign state. It ( to have) its own territory, higher and local bodies of state power, government, national emblem, state flag, and anthem.

The population of Ukraine ( to be) about 52 million people. There ( to be) 24 administrative regions there. Many countries ( to have) common boundaries with Ukraine and ( to maintain) economic relations with it. Ukraine ( to pursue) peaceful and neutral policy. It ( to establish) new relations with all countries throughout the world. It ( to set) direct contacts with them signing agreements and treaties. It ( to be) one of the founding members of the United Nations Organization and ( to participate) in the work of many international organizations. Ukraine ( to be) a member of the International Monetary Fund, International Bank of Reconstruction and Development, International Finance Corporation, the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development, the North Atlantic Council of Cooperation, and others.

The main river in Ukraine ( to be) the Dnipro which ( to divide) it into Right-bank and Left-bank territories. Sea transport ( to play) an important part in Ukraine's economy. The ports of the country ( to ensure) trade contacts with over 80 countries.

The Pronoun: Personal and Possessive

XIV. Choose the correct pronouns in italics:

1. Nick had dinner with I, me. 2. I, me had dinner with Nick last night. 3. He waited we, us in the car. We, Us hurried. 4. Please take these food scraps and give it, them to the dog. 5. Ted invited I, me to go to the game with he, him. 6. Alex bought a ticket to the soccer game. He put it, them in his pocket and forgot about it, them.

  1. Use the absolute form of possessive pronouns instead of

the conjoint:

Pattern: her advice — advice of hers;

my friend — a friend of mine;

his joke — a joke of his.

your cousin; her sister; our children; my daughter; my family; her niece; their relatives; your son; their grandson; my parents; my sister-in-law.

XVI. Choose the correct pronouns in italics:

1. Children should obey his, their parents. 2. Excuse me. Is this my, mine dictionary or your, yours ? — This one is my, mine. Your, yours is on your, yours desk. 3. Fruit should be a part of your, yours daily diet. It, they, is good for you, them. 4. Julie fell off her bicycle and broke hers, her arm.
5. Mary had to drive my, mine car to work. Hers, her had a flat tire. 6. Those seats are not your, yours, they are our, ours. 7. I have a wonderful family.
I, me love it, him, them very much, and he, they, love I, me.

XVII. Paraphrase the following sentences:

Pattern A: This is my coat . — This coat is mine.

1. This is my note-book. 2. This is your report. 3. This is his graduation paper. 4. This is her bag. 5. This is their classroom. 6. This is our bus.
7. This is her suggestion. 8. This is our Sports Centre.
Pattern B: Your room is large. Jane's room is larger. -

Jane's room is larger than yours.

1. Our teacher is young. Your teacher is younger. 2. Her composition is interesting. Her friend's composition is more interesting. 3. His camera is dear. Nick's camera is dearer. 4. Their house is old. Our house is older.
5. My watch is good. Your watch is better.

XVIII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. A friend of mine told me about it. 2. The book which is on the table is mine. 3. This woman is a relative of hers. 4. I haven't got a dictionary. Can you give me yours? 5. These pencils are mine, take them if you want. 6. He held out his hand. I gave him mine. 7. This is my mistake, not yours. 8. It's no business of mine. 9. We went on holiday with some friends of ours.
10. There is a great difference between our composition and theirs.

XIX. Translate into English:

У мене є друг. Я знаю його та його сестру давно. Мiй друг i я — студенти. Ми зустрiчаємось щодня. Вiн часто дає менi кориснi поради. Вони менi дуже потрiбнi. Мiй друг добре знає англiйську мову. Ми часто виконуємо домашнє завдання разом. Ми читаємо книжки. Вони дуже цiкавi. Ми беремо їх у бiблiотецi. Сестра мого друга — викладачка. Вона працює в нашому унiверситетi. Вона викладає англiйську мову. Студентам подобаються її заняття. Вони завжди радi бачити її.

Word Order in the Simple Declarative Sentence

XX. Decide whether the word order is right or wrong.

Correct the wrong sentences:

1. Mary speaks very well English. 2. When I heard the news, I phoned him immediately. 3. Ann drives every day her car to work. 4. You should go to the dentist every six months. 5. I think I'll go early to bed tonight. 6. How many people do you know who go on Sundays to church? 7. We both were astonished when we heard the news. 8. I usually am very tired when I get home from work. 9. I soon found the keys I had lost. 10. I am going on Monday to Paris.

XXI. Put the parts of a sentence in the correct order:

1. some interesting books/we found/in the library. 2. quietly/the door/I closed. 3. his name/after a few minutes/I remembered. 4. again/please don't ask/that question. 5. a letter to her parents/Ann writes/every week. 6. at the top of the page/your name/please write. 7. to London/ for a few days next week/I'm going. 8. opposite the park/a new hotel/they are building. 9. he won/easily/the game. 10. children/very much/I like.

XXII. Arrange the words in the sentences using the correct

word order:

1. Ukraine, a state, is, sovereign. 2. Has, a system, democratic, political, it. 3. A referendum, in Ukraine, 1991, took place, on December 1. 4. Very, is, of Ukraine, geographical, with countries, the development, of its relations, to, favourable, the position, of Europe. 5. Textile, there are, in enterprises, many, Ukraine. 6. The main branches, what, of industry, are, in Ukraine? 7. Presently, the largest, of, branch, the machine-building, is, industry. 8. Today's, to satisfy, the consumers' wants, industries, are unable. 9. Branches, of, agricultural, are, main, there, Ukraine, two, production, in. 10. Farms, Ukraine, are, owned, and, controlled, most, in, the government, by.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Insert the auxiliary verbs:

1. ... the first-year students specialize in economics? 2. ... he go home by underground? 3. ... you like Political Economy? 4. ... she go to the library every day? 5. ... this student study well? 6. ... they study mathematics during the first year of studies? 7. ... you understand the importance of English for your future work? 8. ... you know much about your country?

II. Ask questions indicated in brackets:

1. Susan feels tired. ( Who?) 2. Tom plays chess with his father. ( With whom?) 3. Most of the time he lives in the country. ( Where?) 4. They go to work by bus. ( How?) 5. They want to buy some toys for their children. ( What?) 6. John begins his work at nine. ( When?) 7. It takes her twenty minutes to get to the park. ( How long?) 8. They don't go to work on Sunday. ( When?)

III. Translate the pronouns in brackets into English:

1. ( Вoнa) saw ( мене) in the street. ( Вон а) knows ( вас) and ( мене) very well. ( Вона) is ( наш) teacher. ( Вона) likes ( свою) work very much. Do you know ( її) and ( її) brothers? 2. The man says he knows ( вас) and ( вашу) family. ( Я) know ( його) and ( його) sister. ( Вiн) is a highly educated man. ( Вiн) teaches ( на м) English. ( Вiн) meets ( мене) and ( мого) friend every day. 3. ( Я) see a car. ( Я) see ( його) well. ( Його) colour is white. 4. ( Ми) send ( їм) many letters but ( вони) don't answer ( на них). 5. Do ( ви) know Italian? — No, ( я) don't know ( його) at all. 6. Do ( ви) help ( своїм) parents?

IV. Replace the italicized nouns by the personal pronouns:

1. The teacher helps the students to translate the article. 2. Mother will send Mary to buy the tickets. 3. The man gave the books to the boy.
4. Helen works hard at history. 5. My friend is going to write a letter to his sister today. 6. This book is not suitable for young children. 7. Helen borrows the books from the library. 8. Susan makes dresses for women.

V. Insert possessive pronouns:

1. She likes ... new dress very much. 2. We have ... English classes twice a week. 3. Paul keeps ... books in the bookcase. 4. I usually go to see ... friends in the evening. 5. They often take ... children to this park. 6. The tree drops ... leaves in autumn. 7. Do you help ... parents? 8. The film is very interesting but I don't remember ... title. 9. My son tries to deepen ... knowledge of English.



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