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UNIT 13


TOPIC: LABOUR

TEXT A

TEXT B

TEXT C

GRAMMAR: The Objective Infinitive Complex

The Subjective Infinitive Complex


READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

skill, skilled, labour, force, since, total, grow, growth, shortage, training, operate, carpenter, typist, toolmaker, company, recognize, influance, rate, size, standard, wage, bargain;

b) stress the second syllable:

available, production, eventually, equipment, decline, amount, activity, affect, professional, executive, perform, determine, supply, demand;

c) stress the third syllable:

population, supervision, occupation.
Text A

In order for any country to grow, it must have a large and skilled labour force. Since the size of this force is related to total population the number of people available for production activities will grow as the population grows. If the growth of population continues to decline, it eventually affect the growth of the labour force. However a labour shortage 1 could be made up 2 by workers from other countries.

There are four major categories of labour that are based on the general level of skills needed to do any kind of job. These categories are unskilled, semiskilled, skilled and professional or managerial.

Unskilled labour. Workers who do not have the training to operate machines and equipment fall into 3 the category of unskilled labour. Most of these people work chiefly with their hands at such jobs as digging ditches, picking fruit, etc.

Semiskilled labour. Workers who have mechanical abilities 4 fall into the category of semiskilled labour. They may operate electric floor polishers, or any other equipment that calls for 5 a certain amount of skill.

Skilled labour. Workers who are able to operate complex equipment and who can do their tasks with little supervisions fall into the category of skilled labour. Examples are carpenters, typists, toolmakers.

Professional labour. Workers with high level skills such as doctors, lawyers and executives of large companies fall into the category of professional labour.

Most occupations have wage rate — a standard amount of pay given for work performed.

How these rates are determined can be explained in two different ways. The first deals with supply and demand, the second recognizes the influence of unions on the bargaining process 6.
COMMENTS

1. a labour shortage — брак робочої сили

2. could be made up — можна було б компенсувати

3. to fall into — належати до …

4. mechanical abilities — здібності до техніки

5. to call for — вимагати

6. bargaining process — договірний процес

VOCABULARY EXERCISE

  1. Find equivalents:

1. in order to

2. skilled labour

3. unskilled labour

4. total population

5. labour shortage

6. wage rate

  1. to decline

8. supply and demand

9. to fall into the category

  1. level of skill

11. chiefly

12. bargaining process

  1. semiskilled labour

14. toolmaker

а. головним чином

б. брак робочої сили

в. тарифна ставка

г. попит і пропозиція

д. напівкваліфікована робоча сила

е. договірний процес

є. належати до категорії

ж. для того, щоб

з. кваліфікована робоча сила

і. інструментальник

і. кількість населення

ї. рівень кваліфікації

й. некваліфікована робоча сила

к. знижуватися

II. Match the synonyms:

chiefly, to compensate, unskilled labour, to operate, mainly, to make up, to require, common labour, to increase, to manage, occupation, to grow, salary, job, to demand, wages, profession, work.
III. Complete the following sentences:

1. In order for any country to grow, ... . 2. Since the size of this force is related to total population ... . 3. If the growth of population continues to decline, ... . 4. There are four major categories of labour ... . 5. Unskilled workers don't have the training ... . 6. Semiskilled workers may operate ... . 7. Skilled workers are able ... . 8. Workers with high level skills such as ... . 9. Most occupations have ... .

IV. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B

1. labour

a. The price paid for the use of labour.

2. labour force

b. A standard amount of pay given for work

performed.

3. craft workers

c. Associations of workers formed to promote

the interests of their members.

4. laborer

d. The human effort required to produce goods

and services.

5. wages

e. One of a wide variety of highly skilled workers

such as carpenters, machinists, electricians and

automobile mechanics.

6. wage rate

f. Generally refers to unskilled workers such as

freight handlers, sweepers, trash collectors and

the like.

7. labour/trade unions

g. Individuals, 16 years of age or older, working or

looking for work.


V. Define which of the following items best completes the statement:

1. Labour, to the economist, is

a. organizing a business and managing the operation.

b. anything generally accepted in exchange for property, goods or services.

c. the physical or mental effort needed to produce goods and services.

d. owned, with the other factors of production, by the company using it.

2. Women in the American labour force

a. generally do not produce as much as men.

b. are poorly trained.

c. are only a small percentage of the total.

d. earn less, on the average, than men.

3. Of the following, which is probably not officially included in

the labour force?

a. Computer programmer.

b. Teacher.

c. Unemployed carpenter.

d. Retired steel worker.

VI. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. In order ... any country to grow, it must have a large and skilled labour force. 2. ... the size ... this force is related ... total population the number ... people available ... production activities will grow ... the population grows. 3. If the growth ... population continues to decline, it eventually affect ... the growth ... the labour force. 4. However a labour shortage could be made up ... workers ... other countries. 5. There are four major categories ... labour that are based ... the general level ... skills needed to do any kind ... job. 6. Most ... these people work chiefly ... their hands ... such jobs as digging ditches, picking fruit, etc. 7. Workers who have mechanical abilities fall ... the category ... semiskilled labour. 8. Workers who can do their tasks ... little ... supervisions fall ... the category ... skilled labour. 9. Most ... occupations have wage rate — a standard amount ... pay given ... work performed.

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What is necessary for any country to grow? 2. What factor does the growth of population influence? 3. How many categories of labour are mentioned in the text? What are they? 4. What kind of work do unskilled workers perform? 5. What category do workers with mechanical ability fall into? 6. What kind of work are skilled workers able to do? 7. What is professional labour? Give examples. 8. What do most occupations have?
9. What is a wage rate? 10. Can you explain how the rates are determined?

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Для розвитку будь-якої країни необхідно мати кваліфіковану робочу силу. 2. Якщо приріст населення знижується, це врешті-решт впливає на зростання робочої сили. 3. Згідно з кваліфікацією є чотири головні категорії праці. 4. Некваліфіковані робітники не підготовлені для роботи з машинами. 5. Напівкваліфіковані робітники працюють з технікою, яка потребує певних умінь. 6. Кваліфіковані працівники оперують складним обладнанням. 7. Більшість видів робіт має встановлений рівень оплати за виконану роботу.
READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

measuring, measurable, value, labour, payment, strict, scientist, regular, nature, standard, judge, human, different, nurse, social, simply, wages, nation, national, render, force, private, profit, business, surplus, partly, enterprise.

b) stress the second syllable:

economist, although, financial, reward, concern, essentially, distinction, aware, activity, provide, available, religious, engage, return, assistant, employ, employer, objective, subjective;

c) stress the third syllable:

undertake, economics, scientific, population.
Text B

Money is not only a means of exchange 1 but is also a means of measuring the value of men's labour. In economic theory, labour is any work undertaken in return 2 for a fixed payment. The work undertaken by a mother in caring for her children may be hard work, but it receives no fixed payment. It is not therefore labour in the strict economic sense.

As a scientist, the economist is interested in measuring the services which people render to each other. Although he is aware of the services which people provide for no financial reward, he is not concerned with these services. He is interested essentially in services which are measurable in terms of money payments of a fixed and/or regular nature. In economics, money is the standard by which the value of things is judged. This standard is not a religious or subjective standard, but an objective and scientific one.

Human labour produces both goods and services. The activities of a farmworker and a nurse are very different, but both are measurable in terms of payment received. Labour in this sense is not concerned with distinctions of social class, but simply with the payment of wages in return for work. When we talk about «the national labour force», however, we are thinking of all those people who are available for work within the nation, ie 3 the working population.

It should be noted that any person engaged in private business is not paid a fixed sum for his activities. He is self-employed 4 and his activities are partly those of an employer 5 and partly those of an employee 6. If however he employs an assistant, to whom he pays a fixed wage, his new employee provides labour in return for payment. He receives his wages, while his employer receives the surplus (large or small) from the whole business. This surplus is the reward of private enterprise and is known as « profit 7 ».
COMMENTS

1. a means of exchange — засіб обміну

2. in return — в обмін

3. ie [id est] conj лат. тобто

4. self-employed — який обслуговує власне підприємство; який не є найманим робітником

5. an employer — наймач; роботодавець

6. an employee — службовець; працiвник; той, що працює за наймом

7. profit — прибуток, дохід
VOCABULARY EXERCISES

  1. Make the words negative by using the prefix dis - .

Use your dictionary if necessary:

ability, engaged, possess, pleasure, connect, comfort, satisfactory, obey, qualify, agree, continue, approve, like, honest, appear, adjust, advantage.

II. Complete the following sentences:

1. Money is not only a means of exchange but is also ... . 2. In economic theory, labour is ... . 3. The work undertaken by a mother in caring for her children may be hard work, but ... . 4. As a scientist, the economist is interested in ... . 5. Although he is aware of the services which people provide for no financial reward, ... . 6. In economics, money is ... . 7. Labour is not concerned with distinctions of social class, ... . 8. When we talk about «the national labour force», ... .

III. Combine the sentences by using «not only», «but also».

This combination creates a contrast:

Pattern: Money is a means of exchange.

Money is a means of measuring men's labour.

Money is not only a means of exchange,

but also a means of measuring men's labour.

1. The economic system is the sum-total of our individual economic activities. The economic system is the general situation which influences our individual activities. 2. This scheme is acceptable to both the management and the trade unions. This scheme has government approval. 3. The government has set up a new economic commission. The government has begun to consider a change in the law very seriously. 4. The factory is producing less every year. The factory is losing valuable workers. 5. The situation interests economists considerably. The situation has certain features which make it highly unusual.
IV. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are

false say why:

1. Money is both a means of exchange and a means of measuring the value of men's labour. 2. A mother's work in caring for her children is not labour because it is seldom very hard work. 3. The economist is interested in services which people provide for nothing. 4. Services which are measurable in terms of money concern the economist very much. 5. The money standard as used by economists is scientific and strictly objective. 6. Economists say that the activities of farmworkers and nurses are the same. 7. Labour in the economic sense is also concerned with the payment of higher wages to the national labour force. 8. If an employer engages an assistant, his own work can be classified as labour.

V. Answer the following questions:

1. What is money, in addition to being a means of exchange? 2. What is labour in economic theory? 3. Why is a mother's work not labour? 4. What is the economist interested in? 5. What is the economist not concerned with? 6. What common factor relates the work of the nurse and the farmworker?
7. What is labour (in the economic sense) not concerned with? 8. What term is used to describe a person engaged in his own private business? 9. What does the employer receive instead of wages? 10. What is the reward of private enterprise called?

VI. Retell the text B using the following words and

word - combinations:

means of exchange; labour; in return; fixed payment; financial reward; to be concerned with; to produce goods and services; the national labour force; to be interested in; working population; to be engaged in; private business; to be self-employed; fixed wage; private enterprise; profit.
READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

theory, dig, digger, manager, management, generally, influence, scarce, average, organize, bargaining, process, member, relative, union, ground, grade, push, race, cost, living;

b) stress the second syllable:

tradition, traditional, define, express, collective, profession, professional, production, productive, relation, political, determine, negotiate.
Text C

The theory that uses the tools of supply and demand to explain differences in wage rates is called the traditional theory of wage determination. For example, many people can dig ditches or work as baby sitters 1. However, fewer have the skills to become professional managers. In other words, professional managers 2 generally are scarcer than ditch diggers or baby sitters.

This can be expressed in terms of supply and demand. When the level of supply is large in relation to demand, wages generally are low. When the level of supply is low in relation to demand as with managers — wages generally are high. In most cases, the higher the level of skills, or grade of labour, the higher the average yearly wage rate 3. For example, semiskilled workers will receive more, on the whole, than unskilled workers. Skilled workers will receive more than semiskilled or unskilled workers. Professional workers will receive more than any of the others.

There are, however, some cases in which the traditional theory does not explain the variations in wage rates. Some unproductive workers, for example, may receive high wages because of family ties or political influence. Some highly skilled or productive workers may receive low wages because of race, sex, or where they live.

At times, wages are determined not by supply and demand but by the influence of organized labour and the collective bargaining process.

In these cases, unions do not try to get higher wages for their members on the grounds 4 that labour is in short supply relative to demand. Nor does management push for lower wages when there is a very large supply of labour. This makes the price of labour-wages hard to define.

When negotiating for wages 5, unions want to know the wage rates in other plants for the same kind of work and what changes have taken place or will take place in the future in the cost of living 6.

COMMENTS

1. baby sitter — няня

2. professional managers — спеціалісти

3. wage rate — тарифна ставка

4. ... on the grounds — ... на підставі

5. when negotiating for wages — коли домовляються про зарплату

6. the cost of living — вартість життя

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:


tools of supply and demand; wage rate; baby sitter; traditional theory of wage determination; professional managers; wages; in other words; variations in wage rates; supply and demand; family ties; political influence; collective bargaining process; to push for lower wages; to negotiate for wages; cost of living.

II. Translate the sentences paying attention to the italicized words:

1. Tax and insurance are deducted from your wages. 2. The staff have agreed to a voluntary wage freeze. 3. We have two wage-earner s in the family. 4. If wages were to rise by 15% from 100 per week and the rate of inflation was 10%, the real wage would have risen by 5%. 5. W ages council is a board of workers' and employers' representatives determining wages where there is no collective bargaining. 6. Money wages are expressed in money terms only, ie without taking inflation into account. 7. Living (minimum) wage is a wage that affords the means of normal subsistence.
8. Wages are paid on Fridays.

  1. III. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms from

the list:

the traditional theory of wage determination; professional managers; wages; the collective bargaining process; supply and demand; labour; the cost of living; wage rate; unions; work.

1. The theory that uses the tools of __________ to explain differences in wage rates is called _________ . 2. _________ generally are scarcer than ditch diggers or baby sitters. 3. The higher the level of skills, or grade of ________ , the higher the average yearly ___________ . 4. At times, wages are determined by the influence of organized labour and ___________ .
5. Some unproductive workers, for example, may receive high ____________ because of family ties or political influence. 6. When negotiating for wages, __________ want to know the wage rates in other plants for the same kind of ________ and what changes have taken place or will take place in the future in __________ .
IV. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B

1. labour

a. A standard amount of pay given for work

performed.

2. labour force

b. The lowest legal wage an employer can pay.

3. wages

c. Associations of workers formed to promote the interests of their members.

4. wage rate

d. The human effort required to produce goods and services.

5. labour/trade unions

e. Cost of goods and services needed for an average standard of living.

6. traditional theory of wage determination

f. Negotiations with management by a union

to prepare a labour contract.

7. labour market

g. The theory that uses the tools of supply and demand to explain differences in wage rates.

8. collective bargaining

h. Individuals, 16 years of age or older, working or looking for work.

9. minimum wage

i. The price paid for the use of labour.


10. cost of living

j. The market that determines who has jobs and the rate of pay for a particular job.

V. Define which of the following items best completes the statement:

1. In the future, businesses hiring new employees are likely to stress

a. gender.

b. education.

c. race.

d. physical fitness.

2. A union of workers, all of whom are electricians, is an example of

a. an industrial union.

b. a craft union.

c. a business union.

d. a union local.

3. The demand for labo u r will decrease in response to which of

the following?

a. Increased productivity.

b. Better training of all labourers.

c. A decrease in the supply of labour.

e. An increase in the supply of labour.

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1. The theory that uses the tools of supply and demand to explain differences in wage rates is called ... . 2. When the level of supply is large in relation to demand ... . 3. When the level of supply is low in relation to demand ... . 4. The higher the level of skills or grade of labour ... . 5. Some unproductive workers may receive ... . 6. Some highly skilled workers may receive ... . 7. At times, wages are determined not by supply and demand but ... . 8. Unions do not try to get higher wages for their members on the grounds ... . 9. When negotiating for wages, unions want to know ... .

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the traditional theory of wage determination? 2. How do supply and demand influence the wage rate? 3. Does the wage rate depend on skill of the worker? 4. In what cases does the traditional theory not explain the interrelation beween skill and wage rate? 5. What are the other factors affecting the wage rate? 6. What do the unions consider when negotiating for wages?

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Професійних менеджерів менше, ніж некваліфікованих чи напівкваліфікованих робітників. 2. Що вищий рівень кваліфікації, то вища середньорічна ставка. 3. Бувають випадки, коли традиційна теорія не пояснює різниці в заробітній платі. 4. У деяких випадках профспілки не домагаються вищої зарплати для своїх членів на підставі того, що пропозиція робочої сили є недостатньою стосовно попиту. 5. Коли домовляються про зарплату, профспілки хочуть знати, за якими ставками оплачується така сама праця на інших заводах.
COMMUNICATIVE SITUATIONS

1. Round-table discussion. The question on the agenda is «Labour and Wages».

Questions for discussion:

Use the graph «Labour and Wages», which shows the supply and demand curves for a perfectly competitive labour market:







































































S




$ 5.00


































4.50


































4.00


































3.50


































3.00


































2.50


































2.00


































1.50


































1.00


































50
























D






0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Quantity of Labour

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

The Objective Infinitive Complex.

I. Change the following sentences according to the pattern:

Pattern A: Mary opened the window. I saw ... .

I saw Mary open the window.

1. The girl smiled. We noticed ... . 2. Banks act as functional institutions that bring savers and borrowers together. We heard ... . 3. The customs-officer was examining our suitcases. I watched ... . 4. He got on the train. We saw ... . 5. The children ran to the river. I saw ... . 6. They were discussing the terms of payment. I heard ... .
Pattern B: He wants the book back. Bring it tomorrow.

He wants you to bring the book back tomorrow.

1. Somebody must help him with his English. He expects it. 2. Do you think he is about fifty? 3. Don't read my letters. I hate this. 4. He is an honest man. Everybody knows it. 5. He will arrive tomorrow. They are expecting him. 6. You mustn't talk about such things in the presence of the children.
I don't like this.
Pattern C: I saw as he crossed the street.

I saw him cross the street.

1. Everybody considers that he is a clever man. 2. Nobody noticed her as she went away. 3. We discovered that the assignment was difficult.
4. I suppose that he is about forty. 5. The two sides expect that negotiations will be long and difficult. 6. I felt as somebody looked at me. 7. I don't think that these people were very intelligent. 8. I expect that you will come in time. 9. They believe that he is honest. 10. I've never heard how he spoke about his life in India.
Pattern D: I still consider they are right.

I still consider them to be right.

1. He saw that the woman turned the corner. 2. The student expects that the article will be published. 3. I believe they are very good at economics and other social sciences. 4. She required that I should arrive at 8 am
5. I heard that banks fulfil two distinct needs in a community. 6. They expected that we had found the answer to this question. 7. His father's wish is that he should become a manager. 8. Nobody noticed her as she went away. 9. He desires that his son should make a career in banking.

II. Paraphrase the following sentences so as to use the Objective

Infinitive Complex:

1. He will come by an early train ( expect). 2. It's good advice ( believe).
3. He will be pleased with the results of our sport competition ( expect).
4. She must see the doctor ( advise). 5. It's a dangerous kind of sport ( know). 6. They were at home ( believe). 7. They will enjoy the film ( expect). 8. It won't happen again ( not want). 9. He won't be back so soon ( not expect). 10. You must promise not to do such things again ( want). 11. Will he come too ( expect)?

III. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. I heard his name mentioned during the conversation. 2. She saw him come into the house and went downstairs to meet him. 3. I saw the sun set and dark clouds cover the sky. 4. Have you ever heard him sing? 5. I saw her go up to the writing table and take a letter lying there. 6. He told me that he had seen her leave the house. 7. She felt her voice trumble. 8. Nobody noticed her leave the room. 9. He didn't hear me knock at the door. 10. We watched the train leave the station.

IV. Translate into English:

1. Я бачив, як вона ввiйшла до кiмнати, увімкнула свiтло й сiла за стiл. 2. Я чув, як викладач говорив йому це багато разів на заняттях.
3. Я нiколи не бачив, як вiн плаває, але я чув, що вiн плаває дуже добре. 4. Я бачив, як вона входила в дім. 5. Я вiдчув, що хтось доторкнувся до моєї руки. 6. Вони не побачили, як я ввiйшов до кiмнати. 7. Ви чули, як вiн виступав учора на зборах? 8. Я нiколи не чув, як вiн розмовляє французькою мовою. 9. Я чув, як вона спитала його про це. 10. Я думаю, що сьогоднi ввечерi ви почуєте, як вона спiває.

V. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. Do you want me to help you? 2. Put on a thicker coat. I don't want you to catch cold. 3. I don't like you to say such words. 4. Tell me what you would like me to do. 5. I should like him to be invited to the concert. 6. I wanted them to read this book. 7. He doesn't want his daughter to go to Moscow.
8. He wants the cargo to be insured. 9. We consider him to be the best student of our group. 10. I suppose him to be about sixty. 11. We knew him to be very brave. 12. We expect the contract to be signed tomorrow. 13. They don't expect the President to cut taxes as he has promised. 14. I didn't expect them to be sent to India.

VI. Translate into English:

1. Я хочу, щоб вiн допомiг менi. 2. Чи хоче вiн, щоб ми допомогли йому? 3. Що ви хочете, щоб я для вас зробив? 4. Я б хотiв, щоб ви зачекали на мене тут. 5. Вiн хоче, щоб його син став бiзнесменом.
6. Я б хотiла, щоб ви пояснили менi це правило ще раз. 7. Вiн бажає, щоб роботу було зроблено негайно. 8. Вiн хоче, щоб ми прийшли до нього сьогоднi. 9. Я люблю, коли люди кажуть правду. 10. Вiн любить, щоб обiд був вчасно. 11. Вiн хоче, щоб його послали в Париж на конференцiю. 12. Вона не любить, щоб дiти готували уроки ввечерi. 13. Ми сподiваємося, що товари будуть доставленi через три тижнi. 14. Я вважаю, що вiн розумна людина. 15. Вiн сподiвався, що вона повернеться. 16. Я сподiваюся, що хтось прийде сюди й допоможе менi.

VII. Open the brackets, using the Objective Infinitive Complex:

1. Did you see ( it, happen) with your own eyes? 2. Nobody expected ( they , leave) so soon. 3. Did they expect ( we, show) them the city? 4. We saw ( he, turn) the corner of the street. 5. She wanted ( the whole world, know) how happy she was. 6. I can't let ( you, lose) time like this. 7. The telephone ringing made ( she, sit up) in bed. 8. The bad weather made ( she, change) her plans.

VIII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. I made them work hard. 2. The director ordered the secretary to send off the letter immediately. 3. The captain allowed the goods to be loaded. 4. He ordered his son to open the window. 5. The representative of the firm asked for the documents to be sent by air mail. 6. He ordered the books to be brought to the University. 7. He ordered the goods to be sold immediately. 8. Let me know when you leave. 9. He didn't let me pay for the taxi. 10. Don't let him leave so early. 11. Let's not think about it. 12. He is not talkative himself but he likes to let people talk.

IX. Translate into English:

1. Покупцi просили продавцiв знизити цiну. 2. Що примусило вас iти туди в таку погану погоду? 3. Я не змушую вас робити це. 4. Ми примусимо його прибрати в кiмнаті. 5. Дощ примусив мене залишитись тут. 6. Нехай він не курить тут. 7. Не дозволяйте їй носити важкі речі.
8. Давайте пригадаємо минуле. 9. Дозвольте пройти. 10. Ми не могли зрозуміти, що змусило його сказати неправду. 11. Дозвольте мені нагадати вам про свою обіцянку.

The Subjective Infinitive Complex.


  1. Transform the sentences using the Subjective Infinitive Complex

instead of the Objective Infinitive Complex:

Pattern: I saw her read the letter. — She was seen to read the letter.

1. I saw him put his coat on. 2. We saw the plane take off. 3. They heard the clock strike nine. 4. Everybody supposed him to be a foreigner. 5. I expect the telegram to be sent tomorrow. 6. They expected him to return in a fortnight. 7. Everybody considered him to be a great man. 8. We know her to be a talented actress.

XI. Fill in the blanks using the correct form of the Infinitive:

1. He seems ... books for a whole hour ( to choose). 2. He didn't answer at once. He seemed ... his throat ( to clear). 3. She didn't seem ... in the problem ( to interest). 4. They seem ... this method for years ( to use).
5. He seems ... with his new job ( to fail). 6. He appears ... the same suit the whole year ( to wear). 7. She looks sad. She appears ... the news ( to learn).
8. She didn't seem ... at me but at somebody behind ( to look).


  1. Use the Subjective Infinitive Complex instead of

a Subordinate Clause:

Pattern A: It is known that he is a great book-lover.

He is known to be a great book-lover.

1. It is said that she is preparing for her entrance examinations. 2. It can be expected that the weather will improve soon. 3. It proved that he was a very experienced worker. 4. It happened that he was at home at that time. 5. It seems that she knows French well. 6. It is reported that the delegation has left London. 7. It happened that there was a doctor there at that time.
8. It appears that there are different opinions on this subject.
Pattern B: It is likely that the conference will be held in London.

The conference is likely to be held in London.

1. It was not likely that he would take the risk. 2. It is improbable that she will forget her promise. 3. It is not likely that he will come in time. 4. It is probable that the winter will be very cold this year. 5. It is improbable that this medicine will help him. 6. It is probable that they will be late. 7. It is not likely that they will return soon.

Pattern C: He surely (certainly) will go hunting.

He is sure to go hunting.

1. Surely he is easy to deal with. 2. Surely the teacher will be satisfied with your report. 3. The doctor will certainly do his best. 4. They will certainly like this film. 5. He will certainly do his duty. 6. It is certain that they will be here on Monday.

XIII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. People seem to be more willing to pay taxes when they can understand the tax laws. 2. Economics is known to focus on production of goods and on the income generated in the course of production. 3. The customers are said to buy the goods at a price fixed by a special agreement. 4. The price is said to change. 5. The situation appears to be more difficult than we thought. 6. The meeting is expected to begin this morning. 7. He seems to know all about this matter. 8. He appeared to have received a very good education. 9. They were ordered to leave the hall. 10. She seemed to have been waiting for a long time.

X IV . Translate into English:

1. Кажуть, що він живе нині в Одесі. 2. Здавалося, що він про щось думає. 3. З'ясувалося, що він знає три іноземні мови. 4. Здається, ця фірма підписала контракт. 5. Він виявився здібним математиком.
6. Кажуть, що цей письменник написав нову цікаву книжку. 7. Ніколи не бачили, щоб він сердився. 8. Він, здається, багато знає. 9. Навряд, щоб він став ризикувати. 10. Мої нові сусіди виявилися дуже приємними людьми. 11. Його підхід до вирішення цієї проблеми виявився дуже простим.

XV. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. He is sure to ring you up. 2. Science is certain to influence the solution of the most important political problems. 3. They are sure (certain) to inform us about their plans. 4. No need to hurry. She is sure to be late.
5. They are likely to return next week. 6. The conference is likely to be at our University.

X VI . Translate into English:

1. Очевидно, ви забули про нашу зустріч. 2. Навряд, щоб ви застали його вдома о цій порі. 3. Мабуть, цей готель був побудований багато років тому. 4. Очевидно, ви забули про все, що обіцяли. 5. Він, очевидно, знає, як поводитися в подібних ситуаціях. 6. Студенти обов'язково візьмуть участь у конференції. 7. Ви неодмінно знайдете там нових друзів.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Put «to » where necessary:

1. He made me (do) it all over again. 2. I want (see) the house where our president was born. 3. He is expected (arrive) in a few days. 4. I let him (go) early as he wanted (meet) his wife. 5. He made us (wait) for hours. 6. Please let me (know) your decision as soon as possible. 7. He is said (be) the best surgeon in the country. 8. We don't (want) anybody (know) that we are here. 9. Where would you like (have) lunch? 10. As we seem (have missed) the train we may as well (go) back to the house. 11. He told me (try) (come) early. 12. Before he let us (go) he made us (promise) (not tell) anyone what we had seen. 13. I heard the door (open) and saw a shadow (move) across the floor. 14. There is nothing (do) but (wait) till somebody comes (let) us out.
II. Transform the sentences using the Objective or Subjective

Infinitive Complexes:
1. They believe that he is honest. 2. Is it likely that he will arrive before six? 3. It is said that he was a brilliant scientist. 4. It is certain that they will arrive on Sunday. 5. It is said that she has a frightful temper.
6. They found that the report was rather interesting. 7. I could hardly believe that it had happened. 8. What I want is that you both should be happy.
II I . Translate into English:

1. Вiн не чув, як я постукав у дверi. 2. Вiн сказав менi, що бачив, як вона вийшла з дому. 3. Повідомили, що збори відбудуться завтра.
4. Вона, здавалося, забула, що ми посварилися. 5. Ви сподівалися, що він виступить з промовою на зборах? 6. Я випадково почув, як він це сказав. 7. Схоже на те, що вона говорить правду. 8. Він, напевно, отримає задоволення від цієї поїздки. 9. Ми сподiваємося, що контракт буде пiдписано завтра. 10. Я вважаю, що вiн вiдповiдальний за це. 11. Я вважаю, що я правий. 12. Ми знаємо, що вiн дуже досвiдчений викладач. 13. Мій друг, здається, добре проводить час на березі моря. 14. Вона, здається, знає все з цього питання. 15. Він, очевидно, задоволений результатом своєї роботи. 16. Я випадково зустрів його в Сочі. 17. Погода, напевно, зміниться. 18. Це питання неодмінно будуть обговорювати на зборах сьогодні. 19. Вони, напевно, згодяться взяти участь у цій роботі. 20. Можна чекати, що вони приїдуть у понеділок.



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