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UNIT 12



TOPIC: MARKET PRICE

TEXT A

TEXT B

TEXT C

GRAMMAR: The Infinitive. Forms and Functions

The Prepositional Infinitive Complex


READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

price, value, signal, serve, link, neutral, favour, neither, level, relatively, smoothly, strength, enterprise, opposite, stable, process, surplus, shortage, item, flexible, function;

b) stress the second syllable:

determine, consumer, consumption, surprisingly, instead, event, disaster, affect, react, accordingly, exactly, intention, adjust, adjustment, absorb;

c) stress the third syllable:

unforseen, economic, flexibility, unexpected, equilibrium.
Text A

Prices play an important role in all economic markets. If there were no price system, it would be impossible to determine a value for any goods or services. In a market economy prices act as signals. A high price, for example, is a signal for producers to produce more and for buyers to buy less. A low price is a signal for producers to produce less and for buyers to buy more. Prices serve as a link between producers and consumers. Prices, especially in a free market system, are also neutral. That is, they favour neither the producer nor consumer.

Instead, they come about 1 as a result of competition between buyers and sellers. The price system in a market economy is surprisingly flexible. Unforseen events such as weather, strikes, natural disasters and even war can affect the prices for some items. When this happens, however, buyers and sellers react to the new level of prices and adjust their consumption and production accordingly 2. Before long 3, the system functions smoothly again as it did before. This flexibility to absorb unexpected «shocks» is one of the strengths of a free enterprise market economy.

In economic markets, buyers and sellers have exactly the opposite hopes and intentions. The buyers come to the market larger to pay low prices. The sellers come to the market hoping for high prices. For this reason, adjustment process must take place when the two sides come together. This process almost always leads to market equilibrium 4 — a situation where prices are relatively stable and there is neither a surplus 5 nor a shortage 6 in the market.

COMMENTS

1. to come about — з'являтися

2. ... adjust their consumption and production accordingly —... таким чином регулюють споживання і виробництво

3. before long — потім

4. market equilibrium — ринкова рівновага (ринковий еквілібріум)

5. a surplus — залишок

6. a shortage — нестача
VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Give the verbs from which the following nouns are derived:

buyer, producer, consumer, competitor, supplier, accountant, monopolist, worker, employer, supervisor, manager, economist, financier, executive, leader, importer, exporter, seller.

II. Find equvalents:

1. to determine a value

2. market economy

3. price system

4. low prices

5. adjustment process

6. market equilibrium

7. high prices

8. to come about

9. for this reason

10. free enterprise

11. competition

12. new level of prices

13. affect the prices

14. relatively stable

а. низькі ціни

б. високі ціни

в. ринкова економіка

г. ринкова рівновага

д. з цієї причини

е. визначати вартість

є. цінова система

ж. процес регулювання

з. відносно стабільний

і. конкуренція

і. новий рівень цін

ї. вільне підприємництво

й. впливати на ціни

к. з'являтися

III. Memorize the following word-combinations.

Use them in the sentences of your own:

at a price /at a high cost — за ви сок ою цін ою

contract price — договірна ціна

cost price — собівартість

free-market price — ц і на за умов вільної конкуренції

price control — контроль над цінами

price level — рівень цін

prices and incomes policy — політика цін і доходів

pricing — калькуляція цін

purchase price — купівельна ціна

retail/wholesale price — роздрібна/оптова ціна

security price — курс цінних паперів

share/stock prices — курс акцій, біржовий курс

to keep the prices down — не допускати підвищення цін

to set/fix a price — призначати ціну

IV. Translate the sentences paying attention to the italicized words:

1. He sold the house at a good price. 2. It must be done at any price. 3. You can't put a price on that sort of loyalty. 4. This restaurant is a bit pricey for me. 5. The government usually sets prices for public utility services. 6. Ask the builder to give you a price for the work. 7. I can't afford it at that price. 8. Fresh strawberries are now available at a price. 9. The price of cigarettes is set to rise again. 10. These goods are priced too high. 11. What price all your promises now? 12. You look absolutaly priceless in that hat. 13. Supply and demand determine prices in a market economy. 14. In a free market price is determined by the market forces of demand and supply.

V. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Prices play an important role ... all economic markets. 2. Prices act as signals ... a market economy. 3. A high price is a signal ... producers to produce ... and ... buyers to buy ... . 4. Prices serve as a link ... producers and consumers. 5. Prices favour neither ... the producer nor ... consumer.
6. Prices come ... as a result ... competition ... buyers and sellers. 7. The price system ... a market economy is flexible. 8. Unforseen events can affect ... the prices ... some ... items. 9. The sellers come ... the market hoping ... high prices. 10. Market equilibrium is a situation where prices are stable and there is neither ... a surplus nor a shortage ... the market.

VI. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B

1. free enterprise

a. Money value of a good or service.

2. price system

b. A situation where the quantity demanded is

greater than the quantity supplied.

3. shortage


c. An economic system based on the private

ownership of property, competition and the profit

motive.

4. market price

d. Economic system in which resources are allocated

as a result of the forces of supply and demand.

5. surplus

e. A consumer's willingness and ability to buy

a product or service at a particular time and

place.

6. purchasing power

f. The price of a good or service at which

the quantity demanded matches the quantity

supplied.

7. price

g. A situation where the quantity supplied is greater

than the quantity demanded.

8. market equilibrium

h. A situation where prices are relatively stable and

there is neither a surplus nor shortage in

the market.




  1. Define which of the following items best completes

the statement:

1. « Prices act as signals to the market. » This means that

a. prices affect the kinds and amounts of goods and services offered for sale.

b. profits increase as prices rise.

c. high prices signal a healthy economy.

d. people wait for supply and demand schedules to be published before making

decisions.

2. In a competitive market, the equilibrium or market price is

a. determined by consumer decisions.

b. producers can charge the lowest price and still make a profit.

c. determined by a government agency.

d. the price at which consumers will buy all the goods producers are willing
to sell.

3. All else remaining equal, an increase in demand will result in

a. a higher market price.

b. a lower market price.

c. no change in price.

d. an increase in supply.

VIII. Complete the following sentences:

1. If there were no price system ... . 2. A high price, for example, is a signal ... . 3. A low price is a signal ... . 4. The price system in a market economy is ... . 5. Unforseen events such as ... . 6. This flexibility to absorb unexpected «shocks» is ... . 7. In economic markets, buyers and sellers have ... . 8. The buyers come to the market ... . 9. The sellers come to the market ... . 10. Adjustment process must take place when ... . 11. Market equilibrium is ... .

IX. Answer the following questions:

1. What role do prices play in all economic markets? 2. Is it possible to determine a value for any goods or services without price system? 3. What characteristics do prices have in a market economy? 4. What unforseen events can affect the prices for some items? 5. What is one of the strengths of a free enterprise market economy? 6. What hopes and intentions do the buyers and sellers have coming to the market? 7. What is market equilibrium?

X. Translate into English:

1. Ціни відіграють важливу роль на всіх економічних ринках. 2. За умов ринкової економіки ціни діють як сигнали. 3. Цінова система в ринковій економіці напрочуд гнучка. 4. Ціни на вільному ринку нейтральні. 5. На економічних ринках покупці та продавці мають протилежні наміри та надії. 6. Покупці бажають купувати за низькими цінами.
7. Продавці приходять на ринок із надією на високі ціни.
XI. Retell the text A using the following words and

word-combinations:

price system; to determine a value for any goods or services; prices act as signals; market economy; high price; low price; prices are neutral; flexible; free market system; competition between buyers and sellers; a free enterprise market economy; to affect the prices; opposite hopes and intentions; unforseen events; to take place; adjustment process; market equilibrium; surplus; shortage.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

bargain, possible, current, marginal, compensate, argument, tendency, indicate, satisfy, diminish, purchase, matter, sacrifice;

b) stress the second syllable:

majority, advance, commodity, expenditure, accept, utility, relationship, remain, exist, desire, continue, successive, financial.
Text B

In most economic systems, the prices of the majority of goods and services do not change over short periods of time. In some systems it is of course possible for an individual to bargain over prices, because they are not fixed in advance. In general terms, however, the individual cannot change the prices of the commodities he wants. When planning his expenditure, he must therefore accept these fixed prices. He must also pay this same fixed price no matter how many units he buys. A consumer will go on buying bananas for as long as he continues to be satisfied. If he buys more, he shows that his satisfaction is still greater than his dislike of losing money. With each successive purchase, however, his satisfaction compensates less for the loss of money.

A point in time comes when the financial sacrifice is greater than the satisfaction of eating bananas. The consumer will therefore stop buying bananas at the current price. The bananas are unchanged; they are no better or worse than before. Their marginal utility to the consumer has, however, changed. If the price had been higher, he might have bought fewer bananas; if the price had been lower, he might have bought more.

It is clear from this argument that the nature of a commodity remains the same, but its utility changes. This change indicates that a special relationship exists between goods and services on the one hand, and a consumer and his money on the other hand. The consumer's desire for a commodity tends to diminish as he buys more units of that commodity. Economists call this tendency the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility 1.

COMMENTS

1. the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility — закон спадної граничної корисності

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Find in the text the terms corresponding to the definitions:

1. The approach a country uses to deal with scarcity and achieve its economic goals. 2. An amount of money spent. 3. A purchaser of goods and services. 4. A current medium of exchange in the form of coins and banknotes. 5. Value put on a commodity at the point of exchange. 6. A thing bought.
7. The additional or extra satisfaction yielded from consuming an additional unit of goods or services. 8. An expert in economics.

II. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are

false say why:

1. In the majority of systems prices are fixed but in the minority it is possible to bargain. 2. It is generally possible for the individual to change the prices of the commodities he wants. 3. We know that a consumer's satisfaction is greater than his financial sacrifice if he goes on buying a commodity at the current price. 4. When a consumer becomes dissatisfied at paying the current price, he pays less. 5. The financial sacrifice becomes too great when the quality of the commodity gets worse. 6. The consumer will probably buy more if the price falls. 7. If the price rises, the consumer will probably buy less. 8. If the price remains the same, the consumer will reach a point when his sacrifice is greater than satisfaction. 9. The utility of a product stays the same, but its nature changes. 10. «The Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility» is the name which economists give to the tendency for a consumer's desire to diminish as he buys more units.

III. Change the sentences according to the pattern:

Pattern: When he plans his expenditure, a consumer must accept

fixed prices.

When planning his expenditure, a consumer must accept

fixed prices.

1. When they consider problems of distribution, businessmen should investigate all the methods currently in use and decide objectively whether they can be improved. 2. When it prepares a new product, a company must spend a large amount of money. 3. When it decides production targets for a period of years, the government must establish its priorities very clearly. 4. When it tries to increase efficiency in production, the planning body should decide what factors are most important. 5. When it makes decisions over the number of employees which will be needed, the management for a factory must consider everything very carefully.

IV. Make the following sentences passive:

1. The government fixes the prices. 2. They fix the price in advance. 3. He must pay the current price. 4. The government has changed the policy. 5. The commodity satisfies the consumer. 6. They have produced additional supplies for the men. 7. Even in a capitalist economy the government plans certain things. 8. Economists have classified the various economic systems. 9. They have obtained various valuable minerals in that area. 10. The individual cannot change the prices of the commodities he wants.

V. Answer the following questions:

1. Prices are fixed in most economic systems, but what is possible in some systems? 2. What is the individual generally unable to change? 3. Under what conditions will a consumer go on buying a commodity? 4. What does the consumer show by buying more bananas? 5. What happens with each successive purchase? 6. At what point will the consumer stop buying the commodity at the current price? 7. What remains unchanged with each purchase? 8. What has changed when this point is reached? 9. Under what conditions might he have bought more? 10. What does a consumer's desire tend to do?
READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

cash, transfer, valuable, currency, property, practice, normally, payable, rate, interest, similarly, temporary, applicable, function, allocate, message, rise, ration, motivate, market, level, output, increase, decrease;

b) stress the second syllable:

denote, security, commercial, additional, potential, preferred, distribute, attract, exchange, refer, specific, effect, perform, production, describe, increase, decrease, restrict, control, respond.

Text C

In economics, the term «price» denotes the consideration in cash (or in kind) for the transfer of something valuable, such as goods, services, currencies, securities, the use of money or property for a limited period of time, etc. In commercial practice, however, it is normally restricted to the amount of money payable for goods, services, and securities. In other applications, the word «rate» is preferred. Interest rate 1 is the price for temporary use of somebody else's money, exchange rate 2 is the price of one currency in terms of another.

Price may refer either to one unit of a commodity (unit price) or to the amount of money payable for a specified number of units or for something where units are not applicable, eg, for five tons of coal (total price) or for a specific painting by Rembrandt.

Prices perform two important economic functions: they ration scarce resources, and they motivate production. As a general rule, the more scarce something is, the higher its price will be, and the fewer people will want to buy it. Economists describe that as the rationing effect of prices. In other words, since there is not enough of everything to go around, in a market system goods and services are allocated, or distributed, based on their price.

Price increases and decreases also send messages to suppliers and potential suppliers of goods and services. As prices rise, the increase serves to attract additional producers. Similarly, price decreases drive producers out 3 of the market. In this way prices encourage producers to increase or decrease their level of output 4. Economists refer to this as the production-motivating function of prices.

Prices may be either free to respond to changes in supply and demand or controlled by the government or some other (usually large) organisation.

COMMENTS

1. interest rate — процентна ставка; норма відсотка

2. exchange rate — валютний курс; вексельний курс

3. to drive out — витісняти

4. level of output — рівень виробництва

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and

word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:

currency; securities; the use of money or property; for a limited period of time; interest rate; unit price; to ration scarce resources; to motivate production; the rationing effect of prices; to attract additional producers; to drive producers out of the market; prices encourage producers; to increase or decrease the level of output; exchange rate; production-motivating function of prices.

II. Give the corresponding nouns to the following verbs:

a) to transfer, to practice, to exchange, to increase, to decrease, to level, to respond, to control, to service, to market, to effect, to rate, to ration, to base, to function, to message, to supply, to rise, to price, to demand;

b) to restrict, to allocate, to produce, to describe, to govern, to distribute, to attract, to perform, to motivate, to organise.


  1. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms from

the list:

scarce resources; securities; production; price; amount of money; level of output; services; a commodity; producers; supply and demand.

1. In economics, the term ________ denotes the consideration in cash for the transfer of something valuable. 2. Price may refer either to one unit of _________ or to the amount of money payable for a specified number of units. 3. Prices perform two important economic functions: they ration __________ , and they motivate _________ . 4. Similarly, price decreases drive ________ out of the market. 5. Prices encourage producers to increase or decrease their __________ . 6. Prices may be either free to respond to changes in __________ or controlled by the government. 7. In commercial practice price is normally restricted to the _________ payable for goods, __________ , and __________ .
IV. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are

false say why:

1. In economics, the term «price» denotes the consideration in cash for the transfer of something valuable. 2. In commercial practice it is restricted to the amount of money payable for goods and services. 3. Interest rate is the price paid for borrowing money for a period of time. 4. Exchange rate is the price of one currency in terms of another. 5. Supply and demand determine prices in a market economy. 6. Price may refer only to one unit of a commodity. 7. Price decreases drive producers out of the market. 8. Prices perform many important functions. 9. In a market system goods and services are allocated, or distributed, based on their price. 10. Prices are always controlled by the government.
V. Define which of the following items best completes the statement:

When an item becomes scarce, its price rises and, as a result,
fewer people buy it. This statement illustrates


a. the rationing effect of prices.

b. the production-motivating effect of prices.

c. the law of supply.

d. the effect of a shift in demand.

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1. In economics, the term «price» denotes ... . 2. Interest rate is ... .
3. Exchange rate is ... . 4. Price may refer either to ... . 5. Economists describe that ... . 6. Prices perform two important economic functions ... . 7. As a general rule, the more scarce something is ... . 8. Prices may be either free to respond to changes in supply and demand or ... .

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What does the term «price» denote in economics? 2. How is the price normally restricted in commercial practice? 3. What is interest rate? 4. What is exchange rate? 5. What may the price refer to? 6. What two important functions do prices perform? 7. What can you say about the rationing effect of prices? 8. What do you know about the production-motivating function of prices? 9. May prices be free to respond to changes in supply and demand?
VIII. Replace the Ukrainian words and phrases by suitable English

equivalents in the correct form. Retell the passage:

(Для того щоб купити) foreign products or services, or (інвестувати) in other countries, (компанії) and individuals may first (купити валюту) of the country with which they are doing business. Generally, (експортери) prefer to be paid for their (товари та послуги) either in their own (валюті) (Japanese in yen and Germans in marks) or in US dollars, which are accepted (у всьому світі). For example, when the French buy (нафту) from Saudi Arabia, they may (платити) in US dollars, not French francs or Saudi dinars, even though the United States is not involved in the transaction. The foreign exchange market, or "FX" market, is where (купівля та продаж) of different currencies takes place. (Ціна) of one currency in terms of another country's currency is called (валютний курс).

COMMUNICATIVE SITUATIONS

1. Round-table discussion. The question on the agenda is «Prices in a market economy».

Questions for discussion:

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

The Infinitive. Forms and Functions

I. Give all the forms of the following Infinitives:

to write, to reach, to manage, to laugh at, to distribute, to look for, to put, to improve, to feel, to hold, to utilize, to determine.

II. Change the sentences according to the Pattern:

Pattern: Having good friends is important.

It is important to have good friends.

1. Being polite to other people is important. 2. Learning how to cook is easy. 3. Walking alone at night in that part of the city is dangerous. 4. Playing tennis is fun. 5. Is learning a second language difficult? 6. Looking up words in a dictionary takes a lot of time.

III. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. I am glad to give you advice. I am glad to be given advice. I am glad to have given you advice. 2. It is very kind of you to help me. It is very kind of you to have helped me. 3. She seems to lose her temper easily. She seems to be losing her temper. 4. She was to meet him at the station. She was to be met at the station. 5. He wants to ask you a question. He wants to be asked a question. 6. She seems to have asked him about it. She seems to have been asked about it. 7. I want to write much her about it. She wants to be written much about it. 8. He doesn't want to disturb you. He doesn't want to be disturbed. 9. They had to do this work in time. The work had to be done in time.

IV. Choose the proper form of the Infinitive in brackets:

1. He doesn't want ( to disturb, to be disturbed) you. 2. He didn't want anything ( to change, to be changed) in his room. 3. She wants ( to understand, to be understood) it. 4. She wants ( to understand, to be understood). 5. I began ( to walk, to be walking) very slowly. 6. The telegram is ( to be sent, to have been sent) immediately. 7. She was afraid ( to ask, to be asked) this question. 8. I am glad (to be examined, to have been examined) yesterday. 9. There are a lot of things ( to repair, to be repaired). 10. We were sorry ( to miss, to have missed) the opportunity to take part in this seminar.

V. Define the form of the Infinitive:

1. Factors of production provide the means for a society to produce and distribute its goods and services. 2. The offer cannot be accepted as the price is extremely high. 3. The relations with this country seem to be improving. 4. I am glad to have been examined yesterday. 5. He seems to have been writing for an hour already. 6. The company was said to have been in difficulty. 7. To earn a living he became a salesman. 8. The child seems to be sleeping. 9. The work had to be done in time.

VI. Translate into English:

1. Мені незручно, що турбую вас. Мені незручно, що потурбував вас. Я не люблю, коли мене турбують. 2. Він спокійна людина. З ним легко працювати. 3. Я радий запросити вас на вечірку. Я радий, що запросив вас на вечірку. Я радий, що мене запрошують на вечірку. Я радий, що мене запросили на вечірку. 4. Забути цей день неможливо. 5. Нам пощастило, що ми застали його вдома. 6. Я щасливий, що 25 років живу в Києві. 7. У мене досить часу, щоб побачитися з ним. 8. Вона хотіла, щоб їй сказали правду. 9. Я дуже вдячний вам, що ви мені допомогли. 10. Ви, здається, забули про свою обіцянку.
VII. Complete the following sentences using the Infinitive

a) as subject:

1. It wasn't difficult ___ . 2. It'll take you very little time ___ . 3. It was very kind of you ___ . 4. ___ would be much more useful. 5. It is unwise of you ___ . 6. Why is it so important ___ ? 7. ___ was very pleasant. 8. It's time ___ .

b) as predicative:

1. The main problem is ___ . 2. Her dream was ___ . 3. The only thing he had to do was ___ . 4. The best way to master a foreign language is ___ . 5. The next thing to be done is ___ . 6. To say so means ___ . 7. His only wish is ___ . 8. What I want is ___ .

c) as object:

1. I was happy ___ . 2. The students of our group agreed ___ .
3. Don't forget ___ . 4. Who wants ___ ? 5. You must always remember ___ . 6. They were astonished ___ . 7. Would you like ___ ? 8. We are awfully sorry ___ .

d) as attribute:

1. There was no need ___ . 2. We have a lot of problems ___ . 3. It is not the right time ___ . 4. She was always the first ___ . 5. This is a chance ___ . 6. Is there anybody ___ ? 7. We had nothing ___ . 8. He is just the man ___ .

e) as adverbial modifier of purpose:

1. He will have to work hard ___ . 2. I've come here ___ . 3. We'll stay after the lecture ___ . 4. ___ I took a taxi. 5. They stopped ___ . 6. He stepped aside politely ___ . 7. We went to the station ___ . 8. She pretended to be quite well ___ .

f) as adverbial modifier of result:

1. Do you know him well enough ___ ? 2. The article was too difficult ___ . 3. We are too busy ___ . 4. He is too young ___ . 5. He knows English well enough ___ . 6. The weather is warm enough ___ . 7. The problem is too complicated ___ . 8. The night was too dark ___ .
VIII. Define the function of the Infinitive:

1. To know him is to trust him. 2. To have met him was an event in my life. 3. This firm will be the first to start manufacturing these goods. 4. To make the decision-making process easier we try to divide cost into several different categories. 5. We spend money to buy the things we want.
6. Unfortunately, it is not possible to define economics by a single word.
7. To have an effective tax system, government must have criteria or standards. 8. When prices are set by the government, the economy can be faced with either shortages or surpluses. 9. The partners will be happy to accept our invitation. 10. Sole proprietorship is the easiest form of business to start and run.
IX. Translate the sentences into English using the Infinitive

a) as subject:

1. Пояснити йому все було дуже важко. 2. Важко сказати, що він мав на увазі. 3. Було дуже приємно поговорити з вами. 4. Правда, що добре сидіти тут і пити чай? 5. Буде просто нетактовно, якщо він сперечатиметься. Пізно сперечатися про це. Уже нічого не можна змінити. 6. Забути цей день було неможливо. 7. Нерозумно виходити в таку погану погоду. 8. Важко читати цю книжку без словника. 9. Буде дуже доречно, якщо ти напишеш їй про все. 10. Небезпечно переходити вулицю в недозволеному місці.

b) as predicative:

1. Моїм єдиним бажанням було дістатися додому. 2. Головне — це щоб тебе правильно зрозуміли. 3. Головним було — отримати дозвіл. 4. Я намагався багато працювати, щоб не думати про те, що сталося.
5. Усе, чого я хочу, — це щоб мене залишили в спокої. 6. Єдиний шанс встигнути на поїзд — це впіймати таксі. 7. Немає потреби вам чекати. 8. Учора ввечері вам слід було бути тут. 9. Його мрія — стати менеджером. 10. Учитися наполегливо — обов'язок кожного студента.

c) as object:

1. Не забудь відправити лист. 2. Дівчинка боялася, що її поведуть до зубного лікаря. 3. Ви дуже засмучені, що втратили цю можливість? 4. Вони були дуже раді, що поговорили з деканом. 5. Вона дуже хотіла взяти участь в обговоренні цього фільму. 6. Я попросив вас прийти, щоб повідомити про це. 7. Вона попросила його допомогти їй. 8. Я буду щасливий прийняти ваше запрошення.

d) as attribute:

1. Він пішов додому останнім. 2. Ви пам'ятаєте, хто перший увійшов до кімнати? 3. Хто говорив з ним останнім? 4. У дитини немає нікого, хто б міг потурбуватися про неї. 5. Йому більше не було чого сказати. 6. Він саме та людина, яка може це зробити. 7. Я сказав вам усю правду. Мені нічого приховувати від вас. 8. Є ще одна справа, яку треба зробити. 9. Дайте мені час подумати. 10. Не така він людина, щоб змінити свою думку.

e) as adverbial modifier of purpose:

1. Він зупинився, щоб уважно подивитися на мене. 2. Ми взяли таксі, щоб прибути на станцію вчасно. 3. Вона удавала здорову, щоб її не повели до лікаря. 4. Щоб не образити її, ми вирішили взагалі не говорити на цю тему в її присутності. 5. Завтра ми підемо в ліс по гриби. 6. Ми вчимося, щоб стати кваліфікованими спеціалістами. 7. Я все це кажу, щоб мене правильно зрозуміли. 8. Я прийшов сюди, щоб допомогти вам.

f) as adverbial modifier of result:

1. Проблема занадто складна, щоб вирішити її відразу. 2. Він знає англійську мову досить добре, щоб читати книжки в оригіналі. 3. У цьому тексті надто багато нових слів, щоб зрозуміти його без словника.
4. Діти були надто збуджені, щоб поводити себе спокійно. 5. Він досить досвідчений, щоб виконати це завдання. 6. Погода була занадто гарна, щоб залишатися вдома. 7. Інцидент був надто неприємним, щоб говорити про нього. 8. Я думаю, що він досить розумний, щоб уникнути цієї помилки.

The Prepositional Infinitive Complex

X. Make sentences using the « for -phrases» with Infinitives:

It


is

was

will be


necessary

important

dangerous

high time

better

essential

impossible


for


me

you

him

them

journalists

economists

politicians

to stay here.

to go there at once.

to cross the river here.

to buy it to take a taxi.

take different view.

take some interesting

politics.

to deny the progress of science.



The best thing


is

was

will be

would be



for

me

you

him

us

them

to invite them.

to see a doctor.

to wait.

to go there by plane.

to go home.

I

He/She

We

You

They

wait(s)

waited

will wait

for

me

you

him

us

them

to speak.

to go out.

to send an invitation.

to come back.

to answer.


XI. Change the sentences according to the Pattern:

Pattern A: There was nothing to do there. (I)

There was nothing for me to do there.

1. Here is an example to follow. ( everybody) 2. The idea was not clear enough to understand. ( the young people) 3. He reached the age when it is necessary to think of the future. ( he) 4. There was no reason to get worried. ( I) 5. It was an expensive present to buy. ( she) 6. The best thing is to send them a telegram. ( I) 7. There was nothing to argue about. ( they) 8. I think it will be dangerous to go to the Crimea in this old car. ( we).

Pattern B: The sales are numerous. I can't mention them all.

They are too numerous for me to mention.

1. He speaks too fast. I can't follow him. 2. The results are numerous. They can't remember them all. 3. The situation is difficult. We can't overcome it at once. 4. The goods are very expensive. We can't buy them. 5. The problem is too complicated. He can't solve it now. 6. I am busy. I can't go on a business trip right now.

XII. State the function of the Prepositional Infinitive Complex:

1. I have brought some books for my son to read. 2. For him to help his friend is quite natural. It's natural for him to help his friends. 3. She waited for Helen to say something. 4. It is difficult for me to retell this text. 5. It was a good experience for him to watch his father repair their TV set. 6. It will be better for your child to spend more time outdoors. 7. The problem was too easy for her not to solve it immediately. 8. The teacher gave several examples for the students to understand the rule better. 9. There is nobody here for him to play with.
XIII. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the Prepositional

Infinitive Complex:

1. Have you got anything for me to read ? 2. It will be convenient for all of us to have the examination on Tuesday. 3. Here is the information for you to process. 4. She waited for the teacher to speak. 5. The main idea was for the students to understand the importance of English for their future work. 6. He opened the door of his room for her to go out. 7. The lady was speaking too fast for me to catch what she said. 8. It was a natural thing for him to take part in the discussion. 9. For these problems to be carried out successfully we are to work hard.
XIV. Complete the sentences in your own way:
1. It is necessary for her ___ . 2. It is advisable for them ___ . 3. It was important for them ___ . 4. They waited for us ___ . 5. There was no reason for him ___ . 6. The weather was too cold for the children ___ . 7. It is difficult for me ___ . 8. The best thing is for you ___ .
XV. Translate into English:

1. Завдання надто складне, щоб справитися з ним самому. 2. Бажано, щоб ви це знали. 3. Це єдине, що ви можете зробити. 4. У нього дуже добра пам'ять. Йому досить один раз назвати слово, і він запам'ятає його на все життя. 5. Я шкодую, що вони пропустили першу лекцію.
6. Для того, щоб цей експеримент виявився успішним, йому довелося багато попрацювати. 7. Вам не треба працювати так багато і ризикувати здоров'ям. 8. Подорож надто цікава, щоб від неї відмовитись. 9. Необхідно, щоб вони зробили цю роботу сьогодні. 10. Він попросив, щоб йому вислали книжки поштою.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Choose the proper form of the Infinitive:

1. She wants ( to invite, to be invited) to the conference. 2. I don't know what ( to expect, to be expected) of him. 3. I have come ( to consult, to have been consulted) you. 4. He promised ( to come, to have come) and ( to see, to have seen) them before he left. 5. Allow me ( to introduce, to be introduced) myself. 6. She didn't know where ( to find, to be finding) him. 7. Everything was done ( to save, to be saved) him. 8. This is the key problem ( to solve, to be solved) immediately. 9. We are ( to solve, to be solved) this key problem immediately. 10. It was hardly necessary ( to inform, to be informing) them.

II. Paraphrase the sentences using « for -phrases» with Infinitives:

1. She held out the telegram so that I might see it. 2. There is nothing that I may add. 3. It's high time you knew Grammar well. 4. The first thing he must do is to ring them up. 5. It's quite natural that you should think so.
6. This is a problem you should solve. 7. It is necessary that we should start early in the morning. 8. We stopped the bus so that the tourists might get on. 9. It is rather strange that they should leave without letting us know. 10. I stood there waiting when the door would open.

III. Combine the two sentences using « for -phrases» with Infinitives:

1. She told them the truth. It was easy for her. 2. Your child must spend more time outdoors. It will be better for him. 3. Old people don't usually change their habits. It's hard for them. 4. He always took part in the discussions. It was natural thing for him. 5. I received a letter from him. It was a real joy for me. 6. He came in the nick of time. It was usual of him.

IV. Translate into English:

1. Вам необхідно бути тут завтра о п'ятій. 2. Для того, щоб знайти цю книжку, мені довелося піти в бібліотеку. 3. У мене було досить часу, щоб побачитися з ним. 4. Йому легко це зробити. 5. Текст був надто важкий, щоб він міг перекласти його без словника. 6. Нам важко зробити цю роботу за такий короткий термін. 7. Вашій сестрі необхідно побачити його. 8. Зараз надто пізно, щоб діти пішли на прогулянку.




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